Attach is everything you will need, please let me know if you have any questions

· For this assignment you will use the Quantitative and the Qualitative article that you submitted for week 4 assignment that were related to your week 2 picot question.

· Only articles you uploaded and used in week 4 (I will attach) (Quantitative or Qualitative) are to be submitted. Articles must be current (within the last 5 years). All articles must be related to the field of nursing and related to the topic list from week 2.

· Write a summary (one to two pages)

· In the summary identify differences in article designs and research methods. Describe the differences in your articles designs and methods. Carefully review the rubric before you submit. This summary is using your own words to examine the differences specifically between the articles.

· Use current APA style for your summary paper and to cite your sources.

· Submit the Articles and the summary

It must include:

· Two substantive research articles <br> (one qualitative and one quantitative) are clearly identified as original research studies.

· This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Description of the research problem and purpose of each research article

· This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Description of the research methods for each research article

· This criterion is linked to a Learning Outcome Summary of the findings/conclusions/themes for each research article

· Description of the similarities and differences among the research articles

· APA format


PICOT Question Paper

Janny Mendoza

West Coast University

NURS350 Research in Nursing

Dr. Turpel

November 14, 2021

PICOT Question Paper

The purpose of this paper is to explain different things that can be done in order to prevent infections in older adults during hospitalization. Older adults tend to have more of a risk to different things due to their multiple health complications normally. This also mean they tend to have more hospital visits. In these various settings, older adults are prone to being exposed to different types of pathogens which further weaken their immune system (Mody, 2007). Some of these things include pneumonia, UTI’s and skin infections.


Overall older adults are more susceptible to infections due to their weakened immune system due to their different health morbidities. One that’s very common in this age group is pneumonia. This is an acute respiratory infection that causes infections in the alveoli and its surrounding tissues. This bacterial infection often leads to high fever, cough and shortness of breath. Since this is a bacterial infection, it is normally treated with antibiotics as well as vaccinations that help prevent future infections (Lim, 2020). These infections can become very life threatening, specially to the elderly population. Things such as incentive spirimeters also help these patients

Other common infections are UTIs for this population. One of the hallmarks for this infection in this age group is the mental alterations it causes, oftentimes these patients present signs of confusion. Frequently, mobility is also something that may effect this Rodriguez,- Manas, 2020). While being hospitalized these patients tend to be less active and more sedentary which also does not help with these infections. With the fact that they do not move as often their skin is also very susceptible to infections. Elderly patients have thin, soft tissue therefore making their skin very easily irritated which can make then susceptible to any infection (Laube & Farrel, 2002).

Significance in Nursing

Infection Control is definitely an important topic in nursing. Facilities nowadays have many protococals to prevent this but even then it still occurs therefore we must still do our part in improving this matter everyway possible. Patient safety should be in every nurses best interest. Giving these patients the best stay should be one of our highest priority. Infections can complicate any patients stay, something small can very easily escalate. Aside from our basic hand hygiene this goes furthet than that and actually encouraging patients to do activities in which their health will improve and keep them f


Appraisal Guide:

Findings of a Quantitative Study


Payne, D. (2020). Skin integrity in older adults: pressure-prone, inaccessible areas of the body. British Journal of Community Nursing25(1), 22–26.


What was the purpose of the study (research questions, purposes, and hypotheses) ? Skin integrity in older adults pressure prone in inaccessible areas of the body

How was the sample obtained?n/a

What inclusion or exclusion criteria were used? The inclusion of just elder adults since their skin is more sensitive

Who from the sample actually participated or contributed data (demographic or clinical profile and dropout rate)? n/a

What methods were used to collect data (e.g., sequence, timing, types of data, and measures)?

Was an intervention tested?  Yes   No

1. How was the sample size determined?

2. Were patients randomly assigned to treatment groups?

What are the main findings? The importance of proper care in those hard to reach areas for the elder in order to prevent any skin breakdown


Is the study published in a source
that required peer review?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Did the data obtained and the
analysis conducted answer the
research question?  Yes   No   Not clear

Were the measuring instruments
reliable and valid?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Were important extraneous
variables and bias controlled?  Yes   No   Not clear

*If an intervention was tested,
answer the following five questions:  Yes   No   Not clear

1. Were participants randomly
assigned to groups and were
the two groups similar at the
start (before the intervention)?  Yes   No   Not clear

2. Were the interventions well
defined and consistently
delivered?  Yes   No   Not clear

3. Were the groups treated
equally other than the
difference in interventions?  Yes   No   Not clear

4. If no difference was found, was
the sample size large enough
to detect a difference if one existed?  Yes   No   Not clear

5. If a difference was found, are
you confident it was due to the
intervention?  Yes   No   Not clear

Are the findings consistent with
findings from other studies?  Yes   Some   No   Not clear

Are the findings credible?  Yes All   Yes Some   No

Clinical Significance

Note any difference in means, r2s, or measures of clinical effects (ABI, NNT, RR, OR)

*Is the target population clearly
described?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Is the frequency, association, or
treatment effect impressive enough
for you to be confident that the finding
would make a clinical difference if used
as the basis for care?  Yes   No   Not clear

Are the findings


Appraisal Guide:

Findings of a Qualitative Study


Ahmed, H., Farewell, D., Jones, H. M., Francis, N. A., Paranjothy, S., & Butler, C. C. (2019). Antibiotic prophylaxis and clinical outcomes among older adults with recurrent urinary tract infection: cohort study. Age & Ageing48(2), 228–234.


What experience, situation, or subculture does the researcher seek to understand? The connection between recurrent UTIs in the elderly and antibiotic prophylaxis.

Does the researcher want to produce a description of an experience, a social process, or an event, or is the goal to generate a theory? They are describing it through patients hospital stays

How was data collected? It was a retrospective cohort of health records from 19,696 adults

How did the researcher control his or her biases and preconceptions? They used patients with first time clinical occurrence.

Are specific pieces of data (e.g., direct quotes) and more generalized statements (themes, theories) included in the report? n/a

What are the main findings of the study? Antibiotic prophylaxis was associated with lower rates of UTI recurrence and acute antibiotic prescribing in older adults


Is the study published in a source
that required peer review?  Yes   No   Not clear

Were the methods used appropriate
to the study purpose?  Yes   No   Not clear

Was the sampling of observations or
interviews appropriate and varied
enough to serve the purpose of the study?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Were data collection methods
effective in obtaining in-depth data?  Yes   No   Not clear

Did the data collection methods
avoid the possibility of oversight,
underrepresentation, or
overrepresentation from certain
types of sources?  Yes   No   Not clear

Were data collection and analysis
intermingled in a dynamic way?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Is the data presented in ways that
provide a vivid portrayal of what was
experienced or happened and its
context?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Does the data provided justify
generalized statements, themes,
or theory?  Yes   No   Not clear

Are the findings credible?  Yes All   Yes Some   No

Clinical Significance

*Are the findings rich and informative?  Yes   No   Not clear

*Is the perspective provided
potentially useful in providing
insight, support, or guidance
for assessing patient status
or progress?  Yes   Some  No  Not clear

Are the findings
clinically significant?  Yes All   Yes Some   No

* = Important criteria