1. Abstract

2. Introduction includes (Defining the research question, Problem Statement, Objectives)

3. Methodology to do: Literature Reviews and Analysis

4. Compare previous articles: Objective, method, result, limitations, conclusion (Make tables out of this).

5. Analyze and combine the information.

6. Result to the research question and highlight the gab in current articles.

7. Concluding remark.

8. Figures and Tabels.

the Saudi electronic university

College of Health Sciences – Master’s Program in Health Care Administration

Guidelines for writing a research project

First, the cover page template

The university logo

Saudi Electronic University

Health Sciences Collage

Master of Healthcare Administration

HCM 600 Research Project

Research title


A Research Project

Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree Of

MSc of Healthcare Management

Presented by

Student name ——————————-


Supervisor name——– ———————

Date ——————

Second: the contents page

Table of Contents

Table of Figures iii

Table of Tables iv


1. Introduction (500 words) 1

2. Literature Review (1500 words) 3

3. Objectives (100 words)

4. Methods (1000 words)

5. Results (1000 words)

6. Discussion (1000 words)

7. Conclusionm (500 words)

8. Recommendation (500 words)

9. References (More recent not more than 10 years)

10. Appendixes

Third: How to write

1- English language

2- On the computer and send an email to the supervisor

3- Printing with laser printers

4- Writing on one side of each piece of paper

5- Font type and headings

– The writing is in Font size 12, type Times New Roman

– Titles are written in the middle of the page using Font Size 18(uppercase)

– Headlines are with Font Size 16 Bold

– Headings under headlines are using Font Size 14 Bold

– Side title is with Font Size 12 Bold

Table titles using Font Size 12 Bold at the top of the table while figure titles using Font Size 12 Bold at the bottom of the figure

6- Lines: The writing should be a line and a half space between the lines

7- Margins: 3 cm on the right of the page and 2 cm on the left, in consideration of the binding process

8- Pagination: middle of the page down

9- Shapes:

– The figure number must be mentioned and referred to in the body of the search, and it is placed with a serial number for each figure in parentheses (Figure 1, 2, 3…)

Shapes include graphs and photos

– The figure is placed in the closest writing location t

The impact of leadership on the quality of care for emergency medical services in healthcare organizations in Saudi Arabia

A research proposal

Submitted for the degree of MSc.

Of healthcare management

Presented by

Abdulazeez Abdullah M Albaradei


Dr. Mohammed A. Almohaithef




Studies connecting leadership with the quality of health organizations services are still rare. On the other hand many studies have shown that leadership has a great contribution to the performance of an organization. Therefore, this study will be utilized to develop a framework of service quality in health organizations which incorporates the role of leadership. The research will be based on a systematic review through a comparison of different studies in this field. Also, data will be collected by a systematic review on the perspective of the impact of leadership on health care quality in health organizations. But the basic is the formation of a systematic review through the comparison with the previous studies in this field. The results expected to show that there is effect of leadership on the quality of service.


Effective leadership of healthcare professionals is critical for strengthening quality & integration of care. The requirement for elevated coordination in patient care & higher quality care at lower costs has made it essential for EMS agencies to have in-place quality control or quality enchantment programs that depend on key performance indicators to continuously monitor the system’s overall performance and the effectiveness of the various pre health organizations interventions. The IOM described quality as “the degree to what health services for individuals & populations elevate the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with recent professional knowledge” and showed six dimensions of quality care: a care that is safe, patient, timely, effective, efficient & equitable.(IOM,2006).

Factors that affect the level of service quality include human resources management, HR, organizational culture, leadership & others. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment allegedly played a role in determining the influence of leadership on the service quality. Leadership was one of different factor that mostly studied, but it is not clear how the leadership can affect the service quality. Evaluating quality of care is significant as patient satisfaction is discussed by the service quality. (Duggirala et al., 2008)

Quality criteria can be varied according to patient preference. It



Importance of Leadership Style towards Quality of
Care Measures in Healthcare Settings:
A Systematic Review

Danae F. Sfantou 1, †, Aggelos Laliotis 2, † ID , Athina E. Patelarou 3, Dimitra Sifaki- Pistolla 4,
Michail Matalliotakis 5 ID and Evridiki Patelarou 6,*

1 2nd Department of Cardiology, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of
Athens Medical School, Athens 12462, Greece; [email protected]

2 Department of Upper Gastrointestinal and Bariatric Surgery, St. Georges, NHS Foundation Hospitals,
London SE170QT, UK; [email protected]

3 Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete 71500, Greece;
[email protected]

4 Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete 71500, Greece;
[email protected]

5 Department of Obstretics and Gynaecology, Venizeleio General Hospital, Heraklion, 71409, Greece;
[email protected]

6 Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, King’s College, London SE18WA, UK
* Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +44-7596-434-780
† These authors have equally contributed to the manuscript.

Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 1 August 2017; Accepted: 25 September 2017; Published: 14 October 2017

Abstract: Effective leadership of healthcare professionals is critical for strengthening quality and
integration of care. This study aimed to assess whether there exist an association between different
leadership styles and healthcare quality measures. The search was performed in the Medline
(National Library of Medicine, PubMed interface) and EMBASE databases for the time period
2004–2015. The research question that guided this review was posed as: “Is there any relationship
between leadership style in healthcare settings and quality of care?” Eighteen articles were found
relevant to our research question. Leadership styles were found to be strongly correlated with quality
care and associated measures. Leadership was considered a core element for a well-coordinated and
integrated provision of care, both from the patients and healthcare professiona

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283987859

Leadership in Street-Level Bureaucracy: An Exploratory Study

of Supervisor-Worker Interactions in Emergency Medical


Article  in  International Review of Public Administration · April 2013

DOI: 10.1080/12294659.2013.10805237




2 authors:

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Bureaucratic Red Tape View project

Theory and Method in Public Administration View project

Alexander C. Henderson

Marist College



Sanjay K Pandey

George Washington University



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J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(9)8833-8842, 2012

© 2012, TextRoad Publication

ISSN 2090-4304
Journal of Basic and Applied

Scientific Research

*Corresponding Author: Agusthina Risambessy, Department of Buisness Administrative, Faculty of Administrative
Science, University of Brawijaya, Malang of Indonesia. Email:
[email protected]

The Influence of Transformational Leadership Style, Motivation, Burnout

towards Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance

Agusthina Risambessy1*, Bambang Swasto2, Armanu Thoyib3, Endang Siti Astuti2

1Department of Management, Faculty of Economic, University of Pattimura, Indonesia
2Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Administrative Science,

University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java of Indonesia
3Faculty of Economic and Business, University of Brawijaya, Malang, East Java of Indonesia


Changes in organizational structure, vision and changes leadership is inevitable in any institution. Leadership
style is a special characteristic that distinguishes a leader from one another and this is a powerful force to move
the employee or employees in completing work toward the achievement of maximum results, especially in
improving public health services in environment compete. This research aimed to describe and analyze the
influence of transformational leadership styles, motivation, burnout, and job satisfaction and employee
performance. The unit of analysis is nursing paramedic at a hospital in Malang Raya. Data collection
techniques: conduct interviews using questionnaires and observation techniques as well as using SEM analysis
tool with 105 respondents in a hospital. The research proves that: Transformational leadership style with ideal,
indicator: the influence of leader behavior, intellectual stimulation, a consideration of the individual has a
significant and positive influence towards motivation. Transformational leadership style had a significant and
negative influence on burnout. And directly influence is stronger than the influence of indirect. This proves that
the intervening variables mediated transformational leadership style with burnout cannot be ignored.
Transformational leadership style has significant influence and positive toward job satisfaction.
Transformational leadership style has significant and positive influence toward employee performance. This
indicates that transformational leadership has a direct role to increase motivation, pressing the occurrence of
burnout among nursing paramedic, improving job satisfaction, and performance of a paramedic nursing hospital.
Motivation with an indicator: the need for existence; the need for relation and the need for growth

Understanding an alternative approach to paramedic


Available from Sheffield Hallam University Research Archive (SHURA) at:


This document is the author deposited version. You are advised to consult the
publisher’s version if you wish to cite from it.

Published version

JOHNSON, David, BAINBRIDGE, Peter and HAZARD, Wendy (2018).
Understanding an alternative approach to paramedic leadership. Journal of
Paramedic Practice, 10 (8), 1-6.

Copyright and re-use policy

See http://shura.shu.ac.uk/information.html

Sheffield Hallam University Research Archive


Understanding a New Model of Leadership


Leadership is an essential feature of the life of a paramedic. During incidents, whilst working

with multi-agency colleagues, and within organisations leadership is an expected quality of

all paramedics. Across health and social care organisations leadership is said to be of

pivotal importance to future success. These issues have led to a large investment in

leadership development programmes that organisations are now seeking to justify.

Leadership as a concept is, however, complex and multifaceted. The nature of leadership

has been debated over millennia and still disagreement exists as to how to define it. This

paper utilises Critical Interpretive Synthesis to consider how approaches to leadership have

developed over time. It concludes with a synthesising argument that leadership is a social

construct; as such no single definition will ever be appropriate, however, the four elements

that comprise the leadership equation should be considered if the paramedic leader in

organisations is to be effective.



Leadership is an essential feature of the life of a paramedic. Paramedics will be expected to

demonstrate leadership during incidents, whilst working with multi-agency colleagues and

within employing organisations. Simply, leadership (however it is defined) is an expected

quality of paramedics, be they in practitioner or management roles.

Leadership is said to be of pivotal importance to the future o

O P E N A C C E S S Research article

Utilization of prehospital emergency
medical services in Saudi Arabia: An
urban versus rural comparison
Ahmed Ramdan M Alanazy, Stuart Wark, John Fraser, Amanda Nagle


Background: There is limited research outside the USA, Europe, or Australia on the capacity, efficiency,

and development of prehospital emergency medicine services (EMS) between urban and rural areas.

This study aimed to examine the usage of prehospital EMS across rural and urban areas in Riyadh

region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A random sample of 800 (400 urban and 400 rural) emergency patient records from the

Saudi Red Crescent Authority EMS was collected. The following variables were analyzed: patient

demographics, clinical characteristics, length of hospital stay, and length of intensive care unit (ICU)


Results: A skewed distribution was noted with respect to sex, i.e., 559 men versus 241 women. Rural

patients were younger (42.75 vs. 39.72 years) and had significantly longer hospital (15 days versus

9 days) and ICU (5 days versus 2 days) stays than urban patients following transportation. All injury

types were comparable, except for head injury, which was higher in the rural group than in the urban

group. Advanced treatment and trauma transport were more often used in rural areas than in urban


Conclusions: In this study, rural EMS users were more likely to experience trauma-related incidents that

necessitate EMS transportation, while medical reasons were more common among urban EMS users.

Moreover, men used EMS at much higher rates than women and were more likely to be transported to

the hospital following a call-out.

Keywords: Rural; Urban; Emergency Medical Services; Saudi Arabia; Riyadh

Cite this article as: Alanazy ARM, Wark S, Fraser J, Nagle A. Utilization of prehospital emergency
medical services in Saudi Arabia: An urban versus rural comparison, Journal of Emergency
Medicine, Trauma & Acute Care 2020:9 http://dx.doi.org/10.5339/jemtac.2020.9


Submitted: 20 May 2020
Accepted: 21 September 2020
ª 2020 Alanazy, Wark, Fraser,
Nagle, licensee HBKU Press. This is
an open access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution license CC BY-
4.0, which permits unrestricted use,
distribution and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work
is properly cited.

School of Rural Medicine, Faculty of

Medicine and Health, University of New

England, Australia

*Email: [email protected]


For a patient re

























Leading on the edge: The nature
of paramedic leadership at the front
line of care

Danielle Mercer

Arlene Haddon

Catherine Loughlin

Background: Health care organizations are considered complex systems that represent both formal leadership as
well as more informal and shared leadership models. Implementing these models is essential for optimizing care
and patient outcomes. The paramedic profession specifically, although considered informally, leads out of hospital
patient care.
Purpose: To date, few empirical studies investigate shared leadership in health care settings. In paramedicine
specifically, studies of leadership are scarce, despite paramedics’ essential role in leading on the front lines of care.
Using an exemplar of paramedics, we examine what it means to informally lead on the front lines of patient care
with the emphasis on paramedics responding out of hospital.
Methodology: We employed a qualitative, semistructured interview methodology with 29 paramedics from a
group of companies in central/eastern Canada to explore the conditions and practices surrounding shared
Findings: Paramedics argue that, despite their job title, they classify themselves as informal leaders who share the
leadership role. More specifically, the paramedics discuss the precursors, practices, and structural conditions
surrounding shared leadership within the realm of emergency medical services. They note that they often face
out-of-hospital care without a formal manager, requiring them to collectively lead. The leader will shift in times of
urgency, and this is contingent on their skills and competence. Furthermore, managers routinely called upon
paramedics to lead in their absence.
Practice Implications: It is shown here that, although informally enacted, paramedics view leadership as a necessary
competency for clinical practice. We argue that leadership development of paramedics must begin during their
formal education and training as part of the core curriculum. As well, direct managers can promote an environment
of shared leadership and encourage paramedics to practice leadership with quality of patient service in mind.

Key words: health care, informal leadership, paramedics, shared leadership

Danielle Mercer, MBA, is PhD Candidate, Department of Management, Saint Mary’s University,

48 Healthcare Quarterly Vol.20 No.2 2017

The Economic Value of Community� Paramedicine Programs
Study� was a randomized controlled trial in two Eastern
Ontario communities – one urban and one rural – to deter-
mine whether community� paramedicine services (the
intervention through home visits) would have a positive
economic impact through influencing self-perceived quality�
of life and determining a monetized value. A total of 200
clients who were high-users of healthcare services and
had one or more of five chronic diseases (congestive heart
failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary� disease, hy�perten-
sion, stroke and diabetes) were recruited in early� 2015. These
participants were randomly� assigned to either the interven-
tion group (receiving community� paramedicine services for
12 months) or the control group (receiving conventional
treatment). Study� results suggest that although quality� of
life scores decreased for all groups, those receiving commu-
nity� paramedicine services demonstrated significantly� less
reduction in their scores. Suggestions to further increase
cost efficiency� of this novel service are given.

The concept is proving effective. The practice of community
paramedicine (CP) has arisen from grass roots innovation to
meet community needs by local paramedic services leveraging
their skills and knowledge to address non-emergent client

presentations. In contrast to the traditional stabilize and trans-
port clients to emergency rooms for assessment and manage-
ment, medics are additionally focussing on preventative measures
to support clients to live in their home as long as possible.

As O’Meara et al. (2016) notes, CP has appeared as a
solution to many of the healthcare system’s vexing issues as
a result of increasingly higher education for paramedics and
growing acceptance by other providers and clients that this
profession has much to offer beyond its traditional role charac-
terized by expediency. Paramedics have evolved from being
ambulance attendants to part of the primary healthcare team
through increasingly robust entry-level education programs as
well as continuing didactic and clinical training programs. This
expanded skill and knowledge set has enabled paramedics to
evolve beyond conventional practice and more fully collaborate
with physicians, nurses and other allied health professionals.

The major issues community paramedics are addressing
are complex, while well elaborated in the healthcare literature
(Health Quality Ontario 2012). These include:

• With 5% of the Canadian population consuming 50–67%
of resources, the need has evolved to change the health and
wellness profile of this group of citizens.

• In addition to increasingly scarce resources, the healthcare
system remains fragmented and the literature additionally

Conserving Quality of

See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320347112

The Impact of Leadership Effectiveness on the Quality of Health Care Service at

Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Article · July 2017




1 author:

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Article View project

Wan Afezah Wan Abdul Rahman

Universiti Sains Malaysia



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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/334288268

Emergency medical services core competencies: a Delphi study

Article  in  Australasian Journal of Paramedicine · July 2019

DOI: 10.33151/ajp.16.688




3 authors, including:

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Clinical supervision: The use of DVD simulations to teach effective communication to clinical supervisors View project

PhD: Do we preach what we practice? The development of competency frameworks in healthcare professions. View project

Talal Alshammari

Monash University (Australia)



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