Reply 1

The recently published International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) (Cloitre, Shevlin et al., 2018) is the only validated measure to assess ICD-11 CPTSD in adults, and was shown to exhibit convergent and discriminant validity in a number of studies (Haselgruper, 2020).

International Trauma Questionnaire (ITG) is a 22 question self reporting in adults.  In the article measures and method’s review I studied, a 5 point Likert Scale was used to assess PTSD/CPTSD symptoms over the last two months.  With scores from 0 which indicate (not at all) to 4 which indicate “extremely” Any scores greater than 2 indicate the presence of symptoms.  

Redican’s Systematic review of the literature revealed classes of PTSD, CPTSD and a third class of low symtoms of the 36 studies that were included in the review (Redican, 2021).  A two-factor second-order model was the best fit of the ITQ data. All the the cases were based on self reporting data which may include a varying degree of bias.


Haselgruber, A., Sölva, K., & Lueger, S. B. (2020). Validation of ICD‐11 PTSD and complex PTSD in foster children using the International Trauma Questionnaire. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 141(1), 60–73.

 Redican, E., Nolan, E., Hyland, P., Cloitre, M., McBride, O., Karatzias, T., Murphy, J., & Shevlin, M. (2021). A systematic literature review of factor analytic and mixture models of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD using the International Trauma Questionnaire. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 79.
Reply 2

Measurement instrument refers to various methods through which a researcher obtains data from respondents for his research work. The term data refers to all forms of information that researchers obtain from the participant of the study. The research study instrument I opted for was the questionnaire. 

The questionnaire is the commonly used instrument for collecting research data from the participants of a study. It consists of a set of structured and unstructured questions designed by researchers to obtain data from the respondents. No research is better than its questionnaire and a faulty questionnaire means faulty research. Therefore a questionnaire designed must be valid, reliable and must not be bogus so that the data collected can validate the research. 

Questionnaire has many advantages which include anonymity of the respondents is guaranteed. Because my research pertains to sensitive issues such as race and disparities in health care, anonymity can ensure that more people participate as their answers will not be linked to them individually. It facilitates the collection of large amounts of data in a relatively short period and it is cheap to administer. The major disadvantage of this method is that some confusing and misleading questions cannot be clarified as the researcher may not be there to explain the questions, and also, sometimes, the questions may not be easily comprehensible to individuals who are illiterate, thus, the method is restricted only to educated respondents.


Scherpenzeel, A.C., and W.E. Saris. “The Evaluation of Measurement Instruments by Meta-Analysis of Multitrait-Multimethod Studies.” Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique 39, 1993, pp. 3-19. 

 Alwin, D.F., and J.A. Krosnick. “The Reliability of Survey Attitude Measurement.” Sociological Methods and Research 20(1), 1991, pp. 139-181.