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Week 1 Discussion topic: exercise

Good morning Professor and class,

I have chosen to do excise 1.5 from chapter one. The first question is what are six cancers associated with obesity incidence rates. The six most common cancers associated with obesity within young adults ages 15-35 are:
1.Colorectal: 12% (Cancer, 2020).
2. Thyroid: 12% (Cancer, 2020).
3. Breast: 11% (Cancer, 2020).
4. Prostate: 30% (Bleyer, Spreafico, & Barr 2020).
5.Cervix: 21% (Cancer, 2020).
6. Lymphomas: 22% (Cancer, 2020).

(American Cancer Society, 2020). The prevalence rate of obesity within New Jersey for people younger than 18 is 22.8%. The rate for children is pretty close, for African American it is 34.2%, for Hispanic children it is 26.2% and for Caucasians it is 26.1%. (Americans Health Ranking, 2020). The numbers are devastating to look at, over all NJ is 28th in in rank for unhealthiest state in terms of obesity. NJ is stepping up and they have been for a while, they have set up the Obesity prevention program of NJ in place since 2013. This program offers education and resources to families of meal ideas as well as activity plans to get people moving. It has a great deal of data as well, it is filled with statistics about obesity and information of what can happen if people don’t take action. (NJAAP, 2020). NJ obesity rates have decreased from 2017, by about 4.9%, so although I do I think some of the programs are working, however I think much more work needs to be done. The numbers of obesity, and the issues it causes consistently grow, I feel as if more proactive action needs to happen. The only state involvement includes that physical education is a requirement, healthy food financing funding’s, and there are laws preempting local policies related to nutrition, however I don’t believe it is enough, because than our incidence rates would be much lower and we would see a consistent decrease in numbers, which is not the case. (Americans Health Ranking, 2020).


Americans Health Ranking. 2020. NJ Obesity Rates. Retrieved from:
https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/Obesity/state/NJ (Links to an external site.)

American Cancer Society. (2019, February 4). Obesity-related cancers rising in young
adults in the US: Millennials have about double the risk of some cancers compared to
Baby Boomers at same age. ScienceDaily.

Bleyer, A., Spreafico, F., & Barr, R. (2020). Prostate cancer in young men: An emerging
young adult and older adolescent challenge. Cancer, 126(1), 46-57.

Cancer. 2020. Cancer Statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.cancer.org (Links to an external site.)

NJAAP. 2020. Obesity prevention. Retrieved from: <


Epidemiological Analysis: Chronic Health Problem

Author’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Name and Number


Due Date

Epidemiological Analysis: Chronic Health Problem

Identification of the Health Problem

The health problem under review in this paper is Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). According to the CDC (2020), RA refers to an inflammatory and autoimmune disease whereby a person’s immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy cells in his/her body leading to inflammation in the affected boy parts. This disease often attacks the joints in the knees, wrists, and hands. RA causes inflammation in the linings of a joint and damages the joint tissue. Consequently, the tissue damage may lead to chronic pain, deformity, and unsteadiness. This is a serious disease that adversely impacts a person’s productivity and overall quality of life. To understand the significance of RA, this paper presents comprehensive research of the disease and offers context in the form of state and national data. The state of focus, in this case, is Illinois. By investigating the surveillance/ reporting methods of RA, the epidemiology of RA, and the screening/diagnosis guidelines, a plan of action is developed based on evidence-based interventions.

Background and Significance of the Health Problem

Each year in the US, approximately 71 out of 100, 000 people are diagnosed with RA. This translates to around 1.5 million people with RA in the country (Hunter et al., 2019). In Illinois, the prevalence of the disease aligns with the national data. Out of a population of around 12.67 million, approximately 100,000 people in Illinois have been diagnosed with RA. The trends of both national and state data reveal that women have a higher likelihood of getting RA compared to men. For US adults, the lifetime risk of getting RA is 1.7% for men and 3.6% for women (Hunter et al., 2019). It is asserted that the hormones in both genders tend to play a huge role in the prevention or triggering of the disease. Although RA can target people of all ages, it is mostly prevalent in adults. The table below gives a brief overview of RA-related state and federal data.

Table 1: RA-Related State and Federal Data





12.67 million

329.5 million

No. of people with RA (Approx.)


1.5 million

Prevalence Based on Gender (Approx.)

1.7% for men and 3.6% for women

1.7% for men and 3.6% for women

Associated Healthcare Costs (Approx.



Infectious Disease: Childhood Ear Infections


Institutional Affiliation

Childhood Ear Infections


Ear infections, also known as otitis media (OM), are common in younger children. In children, ear infections are a major health issue that may result in delayed language development and hearing impairment if left untreated. Ear infections are often caused by bacteria. They occur when the middle ear is inflamed, and fluid builds up behind the ear. Children are more prone to getting ear infections than adults. 5 out of 6 children under the age of three will get infections (Mukara & Lilford, 2017). Acute otitis media is the most common ear infection, and it causes earache, and a child might also develop a fever.

Most children will develop ear infections before they have learned how to talk, and a parent might find it difficult because the child cannot speak. There are some signs that parents can look out for in case they think their child has an ear infection. They include a child pulling or tugging the ears, trouble responding to quiet sounds and hearing, a fever, clumsiness or trouble with balance, as well as fussiness and crying.

In most cases, an ear infection will be caused by bacteria and will develop after a child has a cold, a sore throat, or other upper respiratory infection. If an infection is caused by bacteria, these bacteria can spread to the middle ear, and if the infection is viral, such as a cold, bacteria may move to the middle ear as a secondary infection as it is drawn to the microbe-friendly environment. Due to this infection, fluid builds up behind the eardrum.

Other parts near the ear, such as the Eustachian tube, may be infected. This is the tube that connects the middle ear to the upper part of the throat. Its functions include draining fluid, supplying fresh air to the middle ear, and keeping pressure steady between the ear and nose.

Children are more prone to ear infections than adults. There are several reasons for these; the Eustachian tubes in children are smaller and more in level, which makes it difficult to drain fluid out of the ear. When children develop colds, the Eustachian tubes might be swollen and blocked with mucus, and as a result, fluid might not drain. Secondly, the immune system of children is not as effective as that of adults because it is still developing, which makes it difficult for children to fight infections.

A pneumatic otoscope will be used by a doctor to diagnose ear infections. The doctor will blow a puff of air into the ear canal. If the child does not have an infection, the eardrum will move back and forth. But with an infection, the eardrum will not move because it will have fluid behind it. The common treatment for childhood


Healthy People 2020 Impact Paper; Falls in Older Adults

Student’s name




Healthy People 2020 Impact Paper; Falls in Older Adults

About one-third of all falls by older people each year result in serious injury or death, according to the Healthy People 2020 campaign (Healthy People 2020, n.d.). Preventing and reducing the risk of accidents by determining what causes slips and falls and what can be done to prevent them in the present and the future. Falls and fall prevention among the elderly in Illinois will be the focus of this study. An investigation of morbidity and death rates in the vulnerable population will also be examined. This document will provide an overview of the Healthy People 2020 ambitions, key themes, goals, and strategies for preventing falls in this vulnerable group. Conclusions and recommendations on community-driven intervention programs for the population targeted with the goal of decreasing mortality, morbidity, and fall rates will be included in this paper.

Falls may have life-threatening consequences for the people who are at risk. The most common cause of injury and death in people 65 and older is a fall. In 2012, 756 people aged 65 and over in Illinois died as a result of accidental falls (Grossman et al., 2018). Over eighty-four percent of 2012’s accidental fall-related fatalities were among those 65 and older (2013). As many as 53% of the elderly people who fall in Illinois will end up in a nursing home (Grossman et al., 2018). Falls are already costing hospitals $30 billion annually, but according to some estimates, that number may rise to $54.9 billion by 2020. (Kiel, Schmader & Lin, 2018). The occurrence of falls among the elderly has been extensively studied, and the results of this research provide evidence-based recommendations for reducing the risk of falls and instilling a sense of safety among the elderly.

Geriatric Falls in Illinois

Geriatrics in Illinois are no different from those in any other state. Geriatrics are believed to be declining at a rate of one person every thirty minutes. There is a chance that the elderly person would suffer many injuries or possibly die as a result of this accident. A person’s risk of falling increases by 50% when they reach the age of 65, according to the CDC’s research in Illinois. Falls may lead to a variety of health problems, including muscle weakness in the lower body, vitamin D insufficiency, trouble walking and maintaining balance, the need for additional drugs, and foot discomfort. However, there is a simple solution to avoid these mishaps. When it comes to keeping the elderly safe from falling, nothing beats education. For certain elderly groups, one-on-one care may be requir