1. Briefly summarize the article and its findings.
  2. Critique and review the writing style of the article. Specifically, consider the following aspects:
    1. What did you notice about the “voice” or “tone” of the article?
    2. What techniques or structure did the author(s) use in their writing? 
    3. Is the information clear? (if so, how does the author’s writing style create clarity? if no, discuss what areas or parts are unclear and why is it not clear to you as the reader.)
    4. Introduction/Background/Significance: Does the article provide adequate justification and convey the importance of the problem that they are focusing on? What elements of the Introduction/Background support this? If you believe that there is insufficient information, what would enhance the section to make it more compelling to you?
    5. Methods: Does the article provide a clear overview of what intervention(s) were implemented?
    6. Conclusion/Implication: Does the article provide appropriate conclusions? Does it relate back to the original introduction?




6 American Nurse Journal Volume 16, Number 7 MyAmericanNurse.com

THE Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Serv-
ices report that pressure injuries (PIs) affect
millions of patients each year, with incidence
rates ranging from 2.2% to 23.9% in long-term
care organizations. PIs occur as a result of in-
tense or prolonged pressure in combination
with shear and are affected by excessive heat
and moisture, poor nutrition and blood circu-
lation, chronic illness, and soft-tissue condi-
tions (for example, an abrasion or sprain).

For 3 years, PI prevalence increased at a
Texas long-term continuing care retirement com-
munity that provides independent living, assisted
living, memory care, and skilled nursing. The or-
ganization faced several challenges, including
the lack of a nurse educator and inconsistent
continuing education for nursing staff.

To address these challenges, a PI quality
improvement team, consisting of the director
of nurses, an assistant director of nurses, an
RN, a licensed practical nurse (LPN) and a
certified nurse assistant (CNA), was created to
develop an evidence-based practice (EBP)
project of educational interventions and
strategies for consistent PI prevention. The
project was part of the author’s doctor of
nursing practice (DNP) program.

First steps
The QI team started the project by using the
PICOT (Patient, population, problem; Inter-
vention; Comparison, control; Outcome, ob-
jective; Timeframe) mnemonic to develop
this question:
P: In LPNs caring for older adult residents in
nursing homes,
I: how will the implementation of a formal PI
prevention program

Pressure injury
prevention in

long-term care
Follow the

evidence to


By Melissa De Los Santos, DNP, RN


1. Describe strategies for preventing pressure injuries (PIs) in long-term care (LTC).

2. Discuss how to implement a project designed to prevent PIs in LTC.

The author and planners of this CNE activity have disclosed no relevant financial relationships
with any commercial companies pertaining to this activity. See the last page of the article to
learn how to earn CNE credit.

Expiration: 7/1/24


1.6 contact

MyAmericanNurse.com July 2021 American Nurse Journal 7

C: compared to no formal program
O: affect PI incidence
T: over a 5-month period?

A systematic literature search was then
completed across three databases (PubMed,
CINAHL, and Cochrane Library). The search
initially yielded more than

Concise Guide, 7th Edition

Student Paper Checklist

Use this checklist while writing your paper to make sure it is consistent with seventh edition APA Style. This checklist
corresponds to the writing and formatting guidelines described in full in the Concise Guide to APA Style (7th ed.).

Refer to the following chapters for specific information:

• paper elements and format in Chapter 1

• writing style and grammar in Chapter 2

• bias-free language in Chapter 3

• punctuation, lists, and italics in Chapter 4

• spelling, capitalization, and abbreviations in Chapter 5

• numbers and statistics in Chapter 6

• tables and figures in Chapter 7

• in-text citations in Chapter 8

• reference list and reference examples in
Chapters 9 and 10

Information and resources are also available on the APA Style website. If you have questions about specific
assignment guidelines or what to include in your APA Style paper, please check with your assigning instructor
or institution. If you have questions about formatting your thesis or dissertation, check your institution’s
guidelines or consult your advisor.

Student Title Page
Format (Section 1.6): Double-space the title
page. Center each element on its own line.
Do not use italics, underlining, or different
font sizes.

Title (Section 1.7): Concise, engaging summary
of the paper and its main topic and/or variables.
Write the title in title case: Capitalize the first
letter of the title, the subtitle, and any major
words of four letters or more (plus linking verbs
“Is,” “Are,” and “Be”). Double-space, center,
and bold the title in the upper half of the title
page (three or four lines down from the top

Author Name (Section 1.8): Full name of each
author of the paper. The preferred format is
first name, middle initial(s), and last name (e.g.,

Maribel S. Quantez). Center the name two
double-spaced lines after the title (i.e., one
blank line between the title and author name).

Author Affiliation (Section 1.9): Name of the
department of the course to which the paper
is being submitted and name of the college or
university. Use the format: Department, College
(e.g., Department of History, Williams College).
Do not include the school’s location unless part
of its name. Center the affiliation one double-
spaced line after the author name(s).

Course Number and Name (Section 1.6):
Number and name of course to which the paper
is being submitted. Use the format shown
on course materials (e.g., syllabus). Write the
number and name on the same line. Center the
number and name one double-spaced line after
the affiliation.

Instructor Name (Section 1.6): Name o