Your PICOT should be submitted in a structured sentence format along with your 2 Peer Reviewed articles.  Use in-text referencing to support each element of your PICOT. 

The sample of what should be done is attached


By SN Ijeoma Amaoji – T2 2020

PICOT/Research question

In adult patients 65 years and older diagnosed with diabetes mellitus admitted to Inova Fairfax

Hospital medical units, how effective are the use of dietary supplements such as cinnamon

compared to medications such as insulin therapy/oral hypoglycemic in the prevention of diabetic

complications within one year period?


P Adult patients 65 years and older with diabetes admitted to Inova Fairfax

Hospital medical units.

Age is one of the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes with a high

prevalence in older age groups. Selvin and Parrinello (2013), pointed out that

in the USA adults aged 65 or older, had 20% or more than eight times higher

prevalence of being diagnosed diabetes in 2011 than the prevalence among

adults 18 to 44 years of age (2.4% prevalence).

I Dietary supplements like cinnamon.

It is believed that Dietary supplements like cinnamon help patients to control

blood glucose. As mentioned by Hasanzade et al., (2013), traditional herbs

and spices such as Ròu Guì and Cinnamomum cassia are commonly used for

control of glucose among has the greatest effect. They also added that adding

cinnamon to diet can help to lower the glucose level. Studies revealed that

spices such as cinnamon (Ròu Guì; Cinnamomum cassia), and carnation,

walnut, green tea, and mint have similar effects with insulin action in terms

By SN Ijeoma Amaoji – T2 2020

of reduction of sugar level and the most active of them is cinnamon

(Hasanzade et al., 2013).

C Insulin/Oral hypoglycemic medications.

Insulin alone or in addition to oral glycemic medications are universally used

to treat /manage diabetes due to their ability to bring down blood sugar

levels. Research has shown that insulin offers a unique ability to control

hyperglycemia, when used from the time of diagnosis in some circumstances

and when metabolic control is disturbed by medical illness, procedures, or

therapy, and also being used in the longer term ( Home et al., 2014).

O Prevention of diabetic complications. The ultimate goal of diabetes

management is prevention of long-term complications. Uncontrolled

diabetes can lead to a number of short and long-term health complications,

including hypoglycemia, heart disease, nerve damage and amputation, and

vision problems. According to Vinik & Vinik (2003), chronic complications

can be devastating to patients with diabetes mellitus. The major cause of

morbidity and mortality among these patients, are the complications like

Cardiovascular illness, macrovascular disease, with h



Articulating Your Philosophy of Nursing

As the profession of nursing is dealing with rapid
changes in knowledge and practice, the specialty of
school nursing is attempting to articulate its value in
the educational setting. Both the profession and spe-
cialty are maturing, and along with this natural pro-
cess, nurses are clarifying their roles and scope of prac-
tice. As nurses examine their practice, they also are
questioning what is fundamentally important to them
as nurses and as individuals-their values and beliefs.
This has become particularly critical as more and more
nurses in all settings are finding that changing de-
mands and expectations of the role are greater than
the resources or number of hours in the day to accom-
plish what nurses would define as quality nursing
care. Such demands are pushing nurses to examine
their values and what drew them to the profession of
nursing in search of balance and meaning in the work
One strategy nurses can use to affirm that their

practice is in harmony with their value system is to
write a personal philosophy statement. This might be
general in nature, such as a philosophy that relates to
life values; it could be a philosophy statement related
to beliefs about the profession of nursing; or it might
be a philosophy specific to school nursing. In each
case, this activity will encourage nurses to clarify their
values and then examine how their philosophy fits
with their professional practice. Articulating a philos-
ophy statement is an intellectual activity that requires
careful thought, because values need to be identified,
clarified, and prioritized. Once these values are iden-
tified, putting them together into a short, cohesive
statement is a challenging process (Chitty, 2001).

The first part of the process is identifying general
values-values related to the nature of humankind
and society. These are the core values held by an in-
dividual, which are few in number but may evolve as
individuals mature and society changes. Examples of
these core values may relate to the dignity of man, the
sanctity of life, or values that give direction to our
journey of life. Personal values are influenced by fam-
ily, culture, religious orientation, education, and the
choice of one’s life work. All of these factors contrib-
ute to who we are, what we believe, and more impor-
tantly, how we act.

Next, values that relate to the profession of nursing
are delineated. Ideas may come from the American
Nurses’ Association’s code for nurses (American Nurs-
es’ Association, 1985) or the Standards o f Professional
School Nursing Practice (National Association of School
Nurses, 1998) and may include such themes as caring,
confidentiality, integrity, accountability, competence,
and improving the quality of care. Other important
values of the nursing profession are altruism, ethics,
and professionalism. In addition

28 American Nurse Journal Volume 15, Number 6

ALL NURSES are expected to understand and
apply evidence to their professional practice.
Some of the evidence should be in the form
of research, which fills gaps in knowledge,
developing and expanding on current under-
standing. Both quantitative and qualitative re-
search methods inform nursing practice, but
quantitative research tends to be more empha-
sized. In addition, many nurses don’t feel
comfortable conducting or evaluating qualita-
tive research. But once you understand quali-
tative research, you can more easily apply it to
your nursing practice.

What is qualitative research?
Defining qualitative research can be challeng-
ing. In fact, some authors suggest that provid-
ing a simple definition is contrary to the
method’s philosophy. Qualitative research ap-
proaches a phenomenon, such as a clinical
problem, from a place of unknowing and at-
tempts to understand its many facets. This
makes qualitative research particularly useful
when little is known about a phenomenon
because the research helps identify key con-

Introduction to


This type of research
can reveal important

information that

research can’t.

By Jennifer Chicca, MS, RN, CNE, CNE-cl

STRICTLY CLINICAL RESEARCH 101 June 2020 American Nurse Journal 29

cepts and constructs. Qualitative research sets
the foundation for future quantitative or qualita-
tive research. Qualitative research also can stand
alone without quantitative research.

Although qualitative research is diverse,
certain characteristics—holism, subjectivity,
intersubjectivity, and situated contexts—guide
its methodology. This type of research stresses
the importance of studying each individual as
a holistic system (holism) influenced by sur-
roundings (situated contexts); each person de-
velops his or her own subjective world (sub-
jectivity) that’s influenced by interactions with
others (intersubjectivity) and surroundings (sit-
uated contexts). Think of it this way: Each
person experiences and interprets the world
differently based on many factors, including
his or her history and interactions. The truth is
a composite of realities.

Qualitative research designs
Because qualitative research explores diverse
topics and examines phenomena where little
is known, designs and methodologies vary.
Despite this variation, most qualitative re-
search designs are emergent and holistic. In
addition, they require merging data collection