I need you to help me respond to the attached 3 classmates’ posts in 200 words each. 


Elaine Gebhardt


Functions of the cellular organelles

Organelles, according to Norris (2019), are small organs inside the cell. (p.12) These “small organs” are very much like the organs in the animal body that they make up. Each organelles has a different purpose. In this discussion there were be an overview of the following organelles: nucleus, protoplasm, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes and proteasomes, mitochondria, and cytoskeleton. There is minor mention of the cell membrane, but that is not listed in the organelles category.
The nucleus is the “control center,” each cell usually only has one but there are some cells that have more. (Norris, 2019 p. 12) The organelles are surrounded by protoplasm. This is where the supplements that are needed for the cells metabolism are found, it is important to have theses supplements or the cell can not create energy. The cell membrane are not considered part of the organelles according but it does have a primary role in helping the protoplasm balanced with the appropriate supplements for the cell.

The next organelles is the ribosomes, which are responsible for protein synthesis. (Norris, 2019 p. 13) The proteins that are produced may attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, which is responsible for different functions depending if it is rough or smooth. Rough endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes attached to it and this produces produces parts for organelles or the cell membrane but can also be changed into secreted proteins. (Norris, 2019 p.13) With smooth endoplasmic reticulum it does not produce proteins, but lipids. The endoplasmic reticulum is very sensitive if one or more by products is produced and can called endoplasmic reticulum stress, which can cause inflammation and cell death. (Norris, 2019 p. 14)
The Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex is used to make these products from both rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and package in the products so the body can use them. The Golgi apparatus can also make carbohydrates and pair them with proteins for the bodies use. (Norris, 2019 p. 14)
There is the digestive organelles in the cell called the lysosomes. There are many different types and they all have different jobs. The primary lysosomes get their enzymes from the Golgi apparatus and do not do anything until they fuse with something that can be digested. Primary lysosomes become secondary when they enter heterophagy, taking in substances from outside the cell, and take in phagosomes which is produced when the cell membrane forms a barrier around the external substance. The primary lysosomes become secondary when they go to digest the phagosomes. (Norris, 2019 p. 14)
Proteasomes are the organelles that are make of complexes in the cytoplasm