Week 4: Discussion: Mr. X.

Ebook: Hubert, R. & VanMeter, K. (2018). Gould’s pathophysiology for the health professions (6th ed.). Elsevier.

The initial post must include responses to all the questions in both case studies.

Mr. X, age 57, presented to his physician with marked fatigue, nausea with occasional diarrhea, and a sore, swollen tongue. Lately, he also has been experiencing a tingling feeling in his toes and a feeling of clumsiness. Microscopic examination of a blood sample indicated a reduced number of erythrocytes, many of which are megaloblasts, and a reduced number of leukocytes, including many large, hypersegmented cells. Hemoglobin and serum levels of vitamin B12 were below normal. Additional tests confirm pernicious anemia.

Discussion Questions

  1. Relate the pathophysiology of pernicious anemia to the manifestations listed above.
  2. Discuss how the gastric abnormalities contribute to vitamin B12 and iron deficiency and how vitamin B12 deficiency causes complications associated with pernicious anemia.
  3. Discuss other tests that could be performed to diagnose this type of anemia.
  4. Discuss the treatment available and the limitations.

Ms. L, a 19-year-old woman with no previous medical history, was involved in a serious automobile accident in which her best friend died. Examination by EMT personnel first on the scene revealed she had only minor scrapes and bruises and no sign of head trauma. While en route by ambulance to the hospital, Ms. L complained of thirst and appeared restless. Further examination indicated a rapid pulse and respirations, with her blood pressure now at 100/60 mm Hg. She appeared less responsive to the paramedics. She was slipping into circulatory shock as they checked her again for internal injuries.

Discussion Questions

  1. Discuss the contributing factors to shock in this case and the pathophysiologic changes causing the changes in vital signs.
  2. Discuss the signs and symptoms of shock, including the rationale for each, as seen in the early stage, and as compensation mechanisms respond.
  3. Discuss emergency and follow-up treatment for shock and for complications that may arise if not treated quickly.
  4. Compare the types of shock, giving a specific cause, classification, and any significant changes in onset or manifestations.


Weekly Outcomes

  1. Articulate alterations in structure and function of the cardiovascular and hematologic systems. (CO 1)
  2. Trace the impact that alterations in the cardiovascular and hematologic systems have on the body. (CO 2)
  3. Summarize the impact of alterations in the cardiovascular and hematologic systems on homeostasis. (CO 3)

Main Topics and Concepts

  1. Alterations in the cardiovascular system: perfusion
    1. Alterations in physical structures and functions
    2. Alterations in cardiac system function
    3. Pathophysiologic cardiovascular system response to aging
    4. Congenital and genetic influences on cardiovascular system pathology

2. Alterations in the hematology system

  1. Hematologic response to illness and injury
  2. Cancers of the hematologic system
  3. Pathophysiologic hematologic system response to aging
  4. Genetic influences on hematologic system pathology

Weekly Objectives

  1. Understand normal cardiovascular system disorders.
  2. Compare and contrast common cardiovascular conditions: causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatments.
  3. Apply understanding of alterations in and cardiovascular systems across the lifespan to formulate care priorities.
  4. Examine responses to aging and its impact on pathophysiologic changes in the cardiovascular system.
  5. Describe how heredity and genetics influence pathophysiological alterations in the cardiovascular system.
  6. Understand the hematologic response to illness and injury.
  7. Examine factors leading to cancers of the hematologic system.
  8. Compare and contrast common types of anemias: causes, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and treatments.
  9. Apply understanding of alterations in the hematologic system across the lifespan to formulate care priorities.
  10. Apply growth and development principles as they relate to the impact of aging on pathophysiologic changes.
  11. Describe how genetics influence pathophysiological alterations in the hematologic system.

Sub-Concepts with Exemplar

  1. Fluid imbalances: pulmonary edema; congestive heart failure
  2. Metabolism: metabolic syndrome
  3. Perfusion: pulmonary embolism; heart disease; hypertension; venous versus arteriole disorders; and shock states
  4. Aging process: chronic leukemia
  5. Acute versus chronic conditions
  6. Cellular adaptation: acute leukemia
  7. Perfusion: polycythemia
  8. Oxygenation: anemias and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
  9. Genetics: hemophilia A, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
  10. Injury: disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

APA format (7th ed.) and is free of errors       

Grammar and mechanics are free of errors free of Plagiarism   

References: Use your book, the outside source must be within the last 5 yrs, Scholarly Articles,s or Nurse journals within the last 5 yrs.     

SEC TION I Pathophysiology: Background and
Overview, 1

CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Pathophysiology, 1

CHAPTER 2 Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base
Imbalances, 14

CHAPTER 3 Introduction to Basic Pharmacology and
Other Common Therapies, 40

CHAPTER 4 Pain, 53

SEC TION I I Defense/Protective Mechanisms, 65

CHAPTER 5 Inflammation and Healing, 65

CHAPTER 6 Infection, 88

CHAPTER 7 Immunity, 114

SEC TION I I I Pathophysiology of Body Systems, 142

CHAPTER 8 Skin Disorders, 142

CHAPTER 9 Musculoskeletal System Disorders, 161

CHAPTER 10 Blood and Circulatory System
Disorders, 184

CHAPTER 11 Lymphatic System Disorders, 213

CHAPTER 12 Cardiovascular System Disorders, 223

CHAPTER 13 Respiratory System Disorders, 272

CHAPTER 14 Nervous System Disorders, 325

CHAPTER 15 Disorders of the Eyes, Ears, and Other
Sensory Organs, 385

CHAPTER 16 Endocrine System Disorders, 400

CHAPTER 17 Digestive System Disorders, 427

CHAPTER 18 Urinary System Disorders, 488

CHAPTER 19 Reproductive System Disorders, 514

SEC TION I V Factors Contributing to
Pathophysiology, 545

CHAPTER 20 Neoplasms and Cancer, 545

CHAPTER 21 Congenital and Genetic Disorders, 565

CHAPTER 22 Complications of Pregnancy, 579

CHAPTER 23 Complications of Adolescence, 588

CHAPTER 24 Complications of Aging, 597

Section V Environmental Factors and
Pathophysiology, 606

CHAPTER 25 Immobility and Associated Problems, 606

CHAPTER 26 Stress and Associated Problems, 611

CHAPTER 27 Substance Abuse and Associated
Problems, 617

CHAPTER 28 Environmental Hazards and
Associated Problems, 624

Appendices, 631

Glossary, 654

Index, 663

Pathophysiology for the
Health Professions

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Pathophysiology for the
Health Professions


Robert J. Hubert, BS
Laboratory Coordinator
Iowa State University
Department of Animal Sciences
Ames, Iowa

Karin C. VanMeter, PhD
Independent Consultant, Biomedical



Scholarly Paper Phase 1

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Chamberlain University College of Nursing

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