• List the risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents and why?
  • What cultures are at higher risk and why?
  • Describe the 0 to 4+ scale for scoring deep tendon reflexes.
  • What would you expect to find in a patient with diabetic peripheral neuropathy?
  • Share any experience you have encountered and elaborate.

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in proper current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. 

You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.

NUR_418 Post #1

 Diana Figueroa

St. Thomas University

Health Assessment & Promotion

Instructor Rafael Rojas

Due Date: 9/22/22



 Nursing: Neurological

Q1. List the risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents and why? 

Neurological Disorders are diseases and conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. Risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents may include genetic disorders, smoking, hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Treatments to prevent cerebrovascular accidents include physical activity, medications, and dietary changes. Hypertension can cause degradation of the blood vessels. High pressures weaken and stiffen the blood vessel wall, causing the vessel to leak (Minhas et al., 2016). If a blood vessel leaks, the pressure in the blood vessel is lower. Blood starts leaking out of the leaky area if the pressure is low. When this happens, a person may experience dizziness and vertigo, which can be deadly if not treated quickly. Smoking exposes one to carbon monoxide, which can lead to hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and further damage blood vessels. Alcohol consumption decreases platelet adhesiveness, increasing the risk of bleeding. Diabetes and high levels of triglyceride in the blood increase risk for cerebrovascular accidents such as stroke and heart attack by damaging arteries.

Q2. What cultures are at higher risk for cerebrovascular accidents and why? 

Certain cultures have a higher risk of cerebrovascular accidents. For example, the Japanese have a high rate of vascular diseases such as stroke, heart attack, and cerebral accident. Japan’s risk factors include low education levels, low income, and high blood pressure (Artiga et al., 2020). The gap between rich and poor is widening in Japan, increasing the risk for cerebrovascular accidents. There is also an increase in obesity among children in Japan because of the availability of cheap food from fast food restaurants that are rampant in Japan. The increased brain size among Japanese compared to other cultures could be due to the larger size at birth, which leads to greater cerebral growth and faster neurological development compared to other cultures.

Q3. Describe the 0 to 4+ scale for scoring deep tendon reflexes. 

Deep tendon reflexes can be assessed using a 0 to 4+ scale, with the normal range being rated 4+. 0 is no reflex, 1 is equal to patellar or Achilles tendon reflex, 2 is equal to triceps and ankle jerks, 3 is equal to knee jerks, and 4+ is equal to biceps and quadriceps jerk (Rodriguez-Beato & De Jesus, 2020). The Achilles tendon reflex involves tapping below the distal tendon of the Achilles tendon, and the patellar reflex involves