See attachment

For this assignment, identify a specific federal or state healthcare policy (e.g., a state children’s health insurance program, Medicaid, Medicare, the Affordable Care Act, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act). You can find suitable health policy examples to use for this assignment from organizations such as the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF), National Academy for State Health Policy, or similar suitable healthcare organizations.

In a minimum three-page essay, illustrate how your chosen healthcare policy became law, clearly highlighting the role of the government in this policymaking process. Explain what the policy is and the policymaking process in the United States, including the role of the different branches (legislative, executive, and judicial) and the different levels (federal, state) of government in policymaking. Also, explain what impact this healthcare policy and law has on the healthcare and public health of the individuals and population involved.

In addition, your essay should include the following elements.

· Briefly define the concepts of the policy and the law in the United States.

· Identify a historical timeline from the introduction of the law to its implementation.

· Summarize the impact of this healthcare policy on specific public health outcomes.

You must include an introduction and use a minimum of three sources to support your essay, of which two must peer-reviewed articles that are academic in nature from the CSU Online Library.

The Introduction to Law, Medicine, and Bioethics: Role of
Interdisciplinary Leadership in Influencing Health and Public

Health Policy and Democratic Systems of Governance

Mary Beth Quaranta Morrissey1 and Basia D. Ellis2
1 Fordham University Global Health Care Innovation Management Center and Gabelli School of

Business, New York, United States
2 College of Education, California State University Sacramento

This collection of articles takes up a thematic focus on law, medicine, and bioethics in the
contexts of the pandemic environment, including a range of issues concerning democ-
racy, climate change and adaptive governance, structural inequities and health disparities,
and social justice. Drawing on interdisciplinary perspectives, contributors to the collec-
tion of articles engage with the transformations in psychological and social life being
wrought by the pandemic experience, challenging theorizing embedded in neoliberal
paradigms that heighten suffering and risks of harm for vulnerable communities, and
proposing alternative theoretical frameworks relevant to the global world and global
health as radicalized by pandemic threats.

Public Significance Statement
This article serves a critically important public interest at this time in the unfolding
history of psychology and the relationship of psychology to the experience of the
global world in the COVID-19 pandemic environment as it has impacted diverse
societies and peoples. The authors highlight the expanding role and responsibility of
psychology in engaging in interdisciplinary dialogues across the domains of law,
medicine, and bioethics and their influence on democratic systems of governance.

Keywords: law, medicine, bioethics, democracy, equity

The Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical
Psychology (the Journal) is pleased to share a
collection of articles, organized by guest co-
editors Mary Beth Quaranta Morrissey and Basia
Ellis, that examines contemporary theoretical
scholarship in the areas of law, medicine, and
bioethics and the role of interdisciplinary leader-
ship in influencing health and public health pol-
icy. The taking up of a thematic focus on the

relationship of law, medicine, and bioethics to
psychology and allied disciplines and fields is
timely given the Severe Acute Respiratory Syn-
drome Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pan-
demic and the still evolving transformations it
is effecting across the global world and global
health environments. We are pleased to welcome
contributions from leading scholars who have
been immersed in thick and messy work created
or enlarged by the pandemic milieux, addressing
in real time the challenges confronting psychol-
ogy and multiple health disciplines and the im-
plications for global health, public health policy,
and democracy. While the Journal has a history
ofengagement withinterdisciplinary scholarship,
including the May 2016 s

Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains
of substantive controversy

Luca ChiapperinoA,B,D and Per-Anders TenglandC

AEuropean Institute of Oncology, via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.
BItalian Institute of Technology, via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.
CFaculty of Health and Society, Jan Waldenströms gata 25, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
DCorresponding author. Email: [email protected]

Abstract. This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and
health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently
engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment,
namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we
present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of
empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals;
(2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising
from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of
these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment

Received 8 May 2015, accepted 19 October 2015, published online 10 December 2015


The concept of empowerment has clearly been extremely influential
in discourses of healthcare reforms and health promotion in
Australia, Europe and the US.1–5 With its origins in liberatory
pedagogy, social psychology, mental health and health
promotion,6–10 empowerment has often been recruited in the
development and implementation of public health measures and
healthcare policy. References to it are an integral part of broader
discourses in social movements of patient activism and advocacy,11

as well as democratic participation and social agency in the
governance of technoscientific innovation.12,13 From the
commitments to empowerment upheld by policy and reform
documents4 to the practical development of strategies for the
management and prevention of diseases,14,15 the concept of
empowerment is by now considered a ‘cornerstone of health
promotion practice and philosophy’.5 Already a cursory review of
research on and practice of empowerment confirms that this idea
has now become influential at both the individual and public
health levels. The empowerment approach plays a major role in the
development of care stra

Vol.:(0123456789)1 3

Maternal and Child Health Journal (2019) 23:733–738


Leveraging Public Health Research to Inform State Legislative Policy
that Promotes Health for Children and Families

Emily J. Tomayko1  · Bethany Godlewski2 · Sally Bowman3 · Richard A. Settersten Jr.2 · Roberta B. Weber5 ·
Gloria Krahn4

Published online: 7 January 2019
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Purpose Engagement in policy is an essential public health service, with state legislatures serving as important arenas for
activity on issues affecting children and families. However, a gap in communication often exists between policymakers and
public health researchers who have the research knowledge to inform policy issues. We describe one tool for researchers to
better leverage public health research to inform state legislative policymaking on issues of relevance to children and families.
Description The Oregon Family Impact Seminar (OFIS), adapted from the Policy Institute for Family Impact Seminars,
applies a systematic process to bring a synthesis of research findings on public health issues to state legislators using a six-
step process: (1) identify candidate topics, (2) recruit legislative champions, (3) select the topic, (4) identify and prepare
speakers, (5) host the presentations, and (6) develop and disseminate a research brief as a follow-up contact. Assessment Use
of this model in Oregon has produced policy impact; for example, the 2015 presentation, “Two-Generation Approaches to
Reduce Poverty,” prompted ongoing dialogue culminating in a new statute to increase Earned Income Tax Credit for parents
with young children. This approach also has strengthened relationships among researchers and legislators, which serves to
streamline the OFIS process. Conclusion This model is an effective vehicle for leveraging public health research findings to
inform state-level policy. This model also serves to connect researchers with opportunities to engage with policymakers to
address significant public health problems, particularly those addressing social, economic, and environmental determinants
of health for children and families.

Keywords Policymaking · Evidence-based policymaking · Translation of research to practice/policy · Child health · Health
policy · Health promotion · Social determinants · Communication

* Emily J. Tomayko
[email protected]

Bethany Godlewski
[email protected]

Sally Bowman

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