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Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain:
A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study

Ming Yuan Low, MA, MT-BC,1 Clarissa Lacson, MA, MT-BC,1 Fengqing Zhang, PhD,2

Amy Kesslick, MA, MT-BC, LPC,3 and Joke Bradt, PhD, MT-BC1


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and preliminary effects of a vocal music
therapy (VMT) program on chronic pain management.

Design: A mixed methods intervention design was used in which qualitative data were embedded within a
randomized controlled trial.

Setting: An urban nurse-management health center on the East Coast of the United States.
Subjects: Participants (N = 43) were predominantly Black (79%) and female (76.7%) with an average pain

duration of 10 years.
Intervention: Participants were randomly allocated to a 12-week VMT program or a waitlist control.
Outcome measures: We tracked consent rate (percentage of participants enrolled out of total number

screened), attrition rate, and treatment adherence. We used PROMIS

(Patient Reported Outcomes Measure-
ment Information System) tools to measure pain interference, pain-related self-efficacy, pain intensity, de-
pression, anxiety, positive effect, and well-being, ability to participate in social activities, and satisfaction with
social roles at baseline and week 12. VMT participants also completed the Patient Global Impression of Change
Scale. We conducted semistructured interviews to better understand participants’ experience of the intervention.

Results: The consent rate was 56%. The attrition rate was 23%. Large treatment effects (partial eta squared) were
obtained for self-efficacy (0.20), depression (0.26), and ability to participate in social activities (0.24). Medium effects
were found for pain intensity (0.10), anxiety (0.06), positive effect, and well-being (0.06), and small effects for pain
interference (0.03) and satisfaction with social roles (0.03). On average, participants felt moderately better after
completion of the VMT program (M = 4.93, standard deviation = 1.98). Qualitative findings suggest that VMT resulted
in better self-management of pain, enhanced psychological well-being, and stronger social and spiritual connections.

Conclusions: Recruitment into the 12-week program was challenging, but quantitative and qualitative
findings suggest significant benefits of VMT for chronic pain management.

Keywords: music therapy, pain management, clinical trials


Chronic pain is a significant public health problemamounting to an annual health care expense of ap-
proximately half a trillion dollars in the United States


In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention issued recommendations to move away from
opioids and instead use nonpharmacological thera-
pies for the treatment of chronic pain.

The use of music

for the

World Journal of

World J Meta-Anal 2019 November 28; 7(9): 406-435

ISSN 2308-3840 (online)

Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc

World Journal of

Contents Irregular Volume 7 Number 9 November 28, 2019

406 Treatment of early stage (T1) esophageal adenocarcinoma: Personalizing the best therapy choice

Kumble LD, Silver E, Oh A, Abrams JA, Sonett JR, Hur C

418 Mechanisms of action of aqueous extract from the Hunteria umbellata seed and metformin in diabetes

Ejelonu OC

423 Fecal microbiota transplantation: Historical review and current perspective
Leung PC, Cheng KF

428 Use of music during colonoscopy: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Heath RD, Parsa N, Matteson-Kome ML, Buescher V, Samiullah S, Nguyen DL, Tahan V, Ghouri YA, Puli SR, Bechtold ML

WJMA https://www.wjgnet.com November 28, 2019 Volume 7 Issue 9I

World Journal of Meta-Analysis

Volume 7 Number 9 November 28, 2019

ABOUT COVER Editorial Board Member of World Journal of Meta-Analysis, Xiangchun Shen,
PhD, Director, Postdoc, Professor, Teacher, School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functions and Applications of Medicinal
Plants, Guizhou Medical University, Guian New District 550025, Guizhou
Province, China

AIMS AND SCOPE The primary aim of World Journal of Meta-Analysis (WJMA, World J Meta-
Anal) is to provide scholars and readers from various fields of clinical
medicine with a platform to publish high-quality meta-analysis and
systematic review articles and communicate their research findings online.
WJMA mainly publishes articles reporting research results and findings
obtained through meta-analysis and systematic review in a wide range of
areas, including medicine, pharmacy, preventive medicine, stomatology,
nursing, medical imaging, and laboratory medicine.

INDEXING/ABSTRACTING The WJMA is now abstracted and indexed in China National Knowledge
Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (CSTJ), and

Superstar Journals Database


Responsible Electronic Editor: Yan-Xia Xing

Proofing Production Department Director: Yun-Xiaojian Wu

World Journal of Meta-Analysis

ISSN 2308-3840 (online)

May 26, 2013


Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai


Jin-Lei Wang, Director

November 28, 2019

© 2019 Baish

Take free quizzes online at acsjournals.com/ce


After reading the article “Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Evidence-Based Use of Integrative Therapies During and After Breast Cancer Treatment,” the learner
should be able to:

ARTICLE TITLE: Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Evidence-Based Use of Integrative Therapies During
and After Breast Cancer Treatment

Blackwell Futura Media Services is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education (CME)
for physicians.
Blackwell Futura Media Services designates this enduring material for a maximum of 2.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should only claim credit
commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education (CNE) by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on
Accredited status does not imply endorsement by the ACS or the American Nurses Credentialing Center of any commercial products displayed or discussed in
conjunction with an educational activity. The ACS gratefully acknowledges the sponsorship provided by Wiley for hosting these CNE activities.

No commercial support has been accepted related to the development or publication of this activity.
Editor: Ted Gansler, MD, MBA, MPH, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Associate Editor: Durado Brooks, MD, MPH, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Lead Nurse Planner: Cathy Meade, PhD, RN, FAAN, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Editorial Advisory Member: Richard C. Wender, MD, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Maureen Berg, RN, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Susan Jackson, RN, MPH, has no financial relationships or interests to disclose.
Barbara L

You were asked to create the initial steps of an Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) project using your chosen topic from Week 2 and the articles your instructor approved in Week 4. After gathering your approved articles, you completed appraisals on a clinical practice guideline, quantitative or qualitative review and systematic review in Week 6.

This week, you will be using your three approved sources to complete your EBP project poster.

Your poster should include:

· Explanation of the nursing issue significance with three statements

· Description of your position on the issue and three statements on how a nurse can impact this issue

· Include only the three approved journal sources from Week 4 to support your position.

After the due date has passed and everyone has submitted their posters, you will automatically be assigned one peer review . You will review one of your classmate’s posters using the grading rubric. Please fill out the rubric and provide substantive feedback on your classmate’s poster.

View the 
Getting Started With Peer Reviews
 page for details on how the peer review process works.

You can use Word, PowerPoint, Canva, or any other software platform to create your poster. 


Music Therapy on Pain Management

Professor Cross

West Coast University

Research in Nursing

Natalie Valdes


Pain is an important aspect of quality healthcare delivery to patients. The reduction of pain is one of the major areas of focus by healthcare providers to ensure that patients receive quality healthcare services. Pain is described as the highly unpleasant physical sensation that is caused by injury or illness. In medical terms, it is described as the mild and localized discomfort to agony forms of unpleasant sensation (Pathania et al., 2019). Poor management of patients leads to an increase in the level of pain and this leads to dissatisfaction from both healthcare providers and patients in terms of the quality of healthcare service delivered.

The management of pain during healthcare delivery takes various forms and some of the approaches are evidence-based intervention. Some of the interventions that are used by the nurses to help in pain reduction include the use of opioids, anticonvulsants for neuropathic pain relief, music therapy, and some analgesic medications among others. For this paper, the focus will be on the use of music therapy in pain management (Honzel et al., 2019). Music therapy is defined as the clinical and evidence-based application of music interventions to help in the attainment of individualized objectives within the therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has attained an approved music therapy program.

Music therapy is working successfully in pain management by ensuring that there is a provision of the sensory stimulation that is involved in the process of evoking the patients’ responses. The music therapy intervention is also aimed at addressing different healthcare and educational objectives, for example, the promotion of wellness, the management of stress, alleviation of pain, and enhancement of the memory of the patients (Pathania et al., 2019).

The significance of the topic

Music therapy in pain management is working as an intervention that is used in chronic pain management. It helps in making sure that there is a successful process of offering stimulation that assists in evoking the responses of the patients. The research studies have proven that the music purposely used as a clinical intervention is assisting a patient through causing a reduction in the amount of pain perceived, promotion of relaxation, promotion of rhythmic breathing, and the promotion of resting (Pathania et al., 2019).

Music therapy is also helping as an intervention that is used in addressing various educational and healthcare objectives such as the promotion of physical rehabilitation, the improvement of communication, improvement of the patients’ memory, and the expressions of feelings. Other objectives that are ach