• Identify and explain positions other than the lithotomy in which a pelvic examination can be performed.
  • Why are women at a higher risk of UTI than males?
  • What would you educate to decrease the risk of UTI?
  • Summarize the pros and cons of newborn circumcision.
  • Describe the following signs on a female examination:
    • Goodell
    • Hegar’s
    • McDonald’s
    • Chadwick
  • Name the characteristics of the following type of hernias:
    • Indirect inguinal
    • Direct inguinal
    • Femoral

Submission Instructions:

  • Your initial post should be at least 500 words, formatted and cited in proper current APA style with support from at least 2 academic sources. 


You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.


Angela Thompson

St. Thomas University


Professor Rojas

September 29, 2022

Appropriate patient position can facilitate proper physiologic function during pathophysiologic processes and facilitate access to certain anatomical locations during surgical procedures. Multiple factors should be considered when choosing the patient’s position (Armstrong & Moore, 2022). Positioning for examinations or surgeries is important to properly perform any routine assessment. There are many positions within the medical field and a few different positions used in order rot complete a pelvic examination. Sims is a position used to inspect a woman’s rectum and vagina. Flexion of the hip and knee allows for the patient’s rectum to be examined fully. The knee to the chest also known as genupectoral position is also a position that will allow the provider to examine the rectum. Examination of the genitalia should include the clitoris, urethra, labia majora, labia minora, peri hymenal tissues, hymen, posterior fourchette, and perineal body.

Frequent intercourse, vulvovaginal atrophy, change of the local bacterial flora, history of UTIs during premenopausal or in childhood, family history, and a non-secretor blood type are substantiated risk factors for recurrent uncomplicated UTIs (Storme, et al., 2019). A woman’s genitalia is located internally and externally, whereas men’s genitalia is located externally. Because of a woman’s anatomy, the likelihood of developing a UTI is much higher than that of a man. Proper hygiene practices, safe sex practices, and a proper balance of vaginal bacteria all help to reduce a urinary tract infection from occurring. Direct effects of aging on the bladder influence the risk of UTIs, and include decreased capacity, reduced contractility, increased hyperactivity, and increased residual urine (Storme, et al., 2019).

Newborn circumcision is a decision all new mothers must discuss after the birth of their son. Certain cultures and religious beliefs all support one’s decision to circumcise their child. Others tend to believe it is more sanitary to circumcise their sons. Pros include less risk of UTIs, a decrease in penile cancer, and a reduced risk of contracting an STD or HIV. There is also a reduction of foreskin complications that include balanitis and is much easier to keep clean. Cons of this procedure include infection, pain during the procedure, excessive bleeding, and potential damage to the penis and foreskin.

Goodell sign is described as the softening of the Cervix. Hegar’s sign is the softening of the lower uterine segment. McDonald’s sign is fundal height and measures the size of the uterus and is used to assess fetal growth. Chadwick sign is a bluei