Research review part II

Assignment Research Review Part 2 Instructions

This is the second portion of your Research Review with a continued focus on your chosen PICO(T). In this assignment you will be providing detailed findings from all your research review articles and the literature review tables.

This section includes combining and synthesizing the evidence from the literature review to answer your research question, make practice recommendations and describe the overall of strength/consistency of the findings to support( or not) the intervention. This portion will examine the levels of evidence and statistical data and its relevance in greater detail.

Included in this portion of the paper will be a discussion that ties together Assignment Part 1 and 2 and gives them meaning.

This would include a detailed discussion regarding major findings, limitation of the reviewed literature, conclusions drawn from the findings and implications for nursing practice.

An important discussion in the implications for nursing section is if there is enough data to support and intervention or if there is a need for further research. This section of the paper will include recommendations and application for nursing practice as well a discussion of methods to make the intervention inclusive, equitable , and accessible for populations

This is a “building assignment” as this section and Part 1 will be combined to complete the Final Assignment ***You do not have to worry about self-plagiarism when continue on to assignment 2 and so on. You will have a minimum of seven articles or more for the final Research Review

Assignment Part 2 – 75 points possible. This draft should demonstrate appropriate formatting and addresses all rubric criteria. See Assignment Part 2 Rubric

Instructions: Follow APA 7th ed. Format and follow Part 2 Rubric (refer to example paper Assignment Part 2)

1. Use APA 7th ed. Manual or recommend APA template sites listed in content section to set up paper and. (Chapter 2, APA manual 7th ed.)

2. Write in 12 font Times New Roman

3. DO NOT write in first person.

4. Write in paragraph format

5. Include your title page from Assignment I with corrections made

7. Follow APA format for headings. Use headings from the rubric (see APA 7th ed. Section 2.7)

8. Findings: Include detailed findings for new literature and previous literature (literature review tables in this section as well referring to the literature review tables labeled as an Appendix (APA 7th ed. Chapter 7 see example table 7.1) Include any other data in this section from your research that strengthens your PICO. It is important to refer to the level of evidence for each article you discuss, include the type of research or study, number of participants in

N320 Grading Criteria /Rubric Part 2


Possible Points

Points Earned


Title Page: APA format corrected from Assignment I


Abstract: Clear concise summary of the paper, identifies purpose, literature review & findings, 100-250 words, single paragraph, not indented, past tense. Include keywords section



Combine & synthesize

from the literature to answer your research question that will support a practice recommendation. Describe overall strength/consistency of findings (important statistical data, levels of evidence, evidenced based tools or protocols, etc.) to support (or not support) the intervention. Discuss each article utilized in your paper to support your PICOT. Include research found on literature review tables and any additional research. Should have a minimum of 7 articles. Refer reader to the lit review table appendix.


Discussion: ties together the other sections & gives them meaning, includes major findings, limitations of the reviewed studies, conclusions drawn from the findings, implications for nursing practice & recommendations for further research.


Recommendations for Nursing Practice: Based on your findings, what do you recommend for nursing practice? Should you implement a practice change & is further research needed? Describe methods to make inclusive, equitable , and accessible for populations


Conclusion: Reviews major points of the paper and is a logical flow from the body of the paper.


References: formatted and cited correctly


APA Format (Title page, headers, headings, in-text referencing, reference list, page numbering)

free of spelling and grammatical errors


Total Points Earned__________(out of 75)


Comparison of Silicone Foam Dressings Versus Pressure Reduction Techniques

Student Name

Minnesota State University, Mankato

NURS 320-W 02 Critical Inquiry and Evidenced-Based Practice for RNs

Dr. Ellen Vorbeck

Date: mm/dd/year


The purpose of this paper was to determine if silicone foam dressings are more beneficial for preventing pressure injuries than pressure reduction techniques alone. Special focus was placed on patients who have the additional risk factor of incontinence. Discussion was focused on assessment tools and differentiating between incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure injury. Eleven studies were reviewed for this paper. Evidence suggested that applying silicone foam dressings may be beneficial for preventing pressure injuries in addition to pressure reduction techniques. However, the evidence was not strong related to difficulty creating double blind studies and small sample sizes. More evidence will be needed in the form of randomized controlled studies or piloting programs prior to implementing practice change in a hospital system.

Keywords: pressure injury, prevention, incontinence, silicone foam dressing


In the case study about nurse practices and preventing pressure injuries, Teo et al. found that “timely escalation of care, effective communication, support from the wound nurses, and bridging the knowledge-practice gap” were the most effective mechanisms (2019, p. 153). For more information regarding this case study, see Appendix Table 2. This research aims to help bridge the knowledge-practice gap specifically for the hospitalized patient with IAD and pressure injury. In the cross-case analysis by Ghiasas et al., occupational therapy researchers examined how patient involvement contributes to pressure injury development and healing. They found that of 25 participants, 19 participants who adopted positive lifestyle changes also experienced improvement of pressure injuries (2020). See Appendix Table 4 for more detailed information.

Several studies were found comparing the use of silicone foam dressings with pressure reduction techniques alone. Walker, et al. performed a pilot study regarding the prophylactic use of silicone foam dressings to prevent sacral pressure injuries in a general medical surgical setting. In the study, silicone foam dressings were applied to the sacrum of patients indicated as high risk on the Waterlow Scale, in addition to pressure reduction te

Impact of Delayed Cord Clamping on Incidence of Newborn Jaundice

Student Name

Minnesota State University Mankato

NURS 320W: Critical Inquiry and Evidence-based Practice for RNs

Dr. Ellen Vorbeck, DNP, ANP-BC, APRN



The purpose of this research review was to understand the impact of delayed cord clamping on the incidence of newborn jaundice and if there seemed to be a correlation or causation. The research review specifically looked at incidences of jaundice within the first week. Discussion was focused on causes of newborn jaundice and the benefits and disadvantages of delayed cord clamping. Eight studies were reviewed for this paper. Evidence suggested that delaying clamping of the umbilical cord was helpful in promoting increased iron and blood volume and did not appear to increase the occurrence of jaundice with a need for treatment in the newborn. Data supported the routine use of delayed cord clamping.

Keywords: jaundice, delayed cord clamping, hyperbilirubinemia


A qualitative study by Faucher et al. (2016) involved a pre-test and post-test to increase knowledge related to the benefits of delayed cord clamping and increase usage of delayed cord clamping among a group of midwives in India. This study found that providing a simulation and lecture increased the knowledge and practice of delayed cord clamping. There were 31 participants in this study and the mean pre-test score was 3.5/7 while the immediate post-test score was 5.5/7 which shows a significant increase. This specific population in India experiences a high level of anemia, and delayed cord clamping has been shown to increase hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in the newborn which improves the iron status (Faucher et al., 2016). This was a qualitative study and is low on the Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt (2019) strength-of-evidence pyramid. It is also weaker evidence due to the delayed cord clamping policy being developed and not tested, which provides a lower level of reliability. Refer to Appendix A for more information about this study.

A systematic review and meta-analysis by Fogarty et al. (2018) reviewed eighteen randomized controlled trials from different databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese articles to determine the effects of delayed cord clamping versus early cord clamping on preterm infant morbidity and mortality. As a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, this is strong evidence and falls at the top of the Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt strength-of-evidence pyramid (2019). The results of these reviews were ana

Advanced maternal age and pregnancy
outcomes: a multicountry assessment
M Laopaiboon,a P Lumbiganon,b N Intarut,a R Mori,c T Ganchimeg,c JP Vogel,d,e JP Souza,e

AM G€ulmezoglu,e on behalf of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal Newborn Health

Research Network
Faculty of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics & Demography, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Faculty of Medicine,

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
Department of Health Policy, National Center for

Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan d Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, School of Population Health, University

of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia e Department of Reproductive Health and Research, UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank

Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP), World Health Organization, Geneva,


Correspondence: Prof. P Lumbiganon, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen,

Thailand. Email [email protected]

Accepted 16 January 2014.

Objective To assess the association between advanced maternal

age (AMA) and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Design Secondary analysis of the facility-based, cross-sectional

data of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn


Settings A total of 359 health facilities in 29 countries in Africa,

Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East.

Sample A total of 308 149 singleton pregnant women admitted to

the participating health facilities.

Methods We estimated the prevalence of pregnant women with

advanced age (35 years or older). We calculated adjusted odds

ratios of individual severe maternal and perinatal outcomes in

these women, compared with women aged 20–34 years, using a
multilevel, multivariate logistic regression model, accounting for

clustering effects within countries and health facilities. The

confounding factors included facility and individual

characteristics, as well as country (classified by maternal mortality

ratio level).

Main outcome measures Severe maternal adverse outcomes,

including maternal near miss (MNM), maternal death (MD), and

severe maternal outcome (SMO), and perinatal outcomes,

including preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation), stillbirths, early
neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, low birthweight (<2500 g),
and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission.

Results The prevalence of pregnant women with AMA was 12.3%

(37 787/308 149). Advanced maternal age significantly

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 242 (2019) 178–181

Full length article

Impact of advanced maternal age on adverse infant outcomes:
A Japanese population-based study

Shigeki Koshidaa,*, Hisatomi Arimab, Takako Fujiic, Yoshiya Itod, Takashi Murakamie,
Kentaro Takahashia

a Perinatal Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan
b Department of Preventive Medicine & Public Health, Fukuoka University, Japan
c Department of Neurosurgery, Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan
d Department of Clinical Medicine, Japanese Red Cross Hokkaido College of Nursing, Japan
e Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan


Article history:
Received 6 June 2019
Received in revised form 12 August 2019
Accepted 21 August 2019

Maternal age
Infant outcome
Small for gestational age
Low birth weight
Preterm births


Objective: The number of births among women of higher age has been rapidly increasing in many
countries for several decades. While recent epidemiological studies on the impact of maternal age on
infant outcomes in developed countries have evaluated the outcomes of singleton infants, few
population-based studies have investigated all deliveries including multiple births. Thus, we aimed to
assess the impact of maternal age on adverse infant outcomes using data from all birth certificates,
including multiple births, in Shiga prefecture, Japan.
Study design: The data from all birth certificates in Shiga Prefecture from 2013 to 2014 (23,294 births from
23,048 mothers) were obtained. We evaluated the impact of maternal age on adverse infant outcomes,
including small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth (PTB). A
multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for
infant outcomes with various maternal factors, including multiple pregnancies. Statistical analysis for
trend was performed using the Jonckheere-Terpstra test.
Results: The incidence rates of adverse infant outcomes began to increase at a maternal age of 30 years. A
maternal age of �35 years was associated with significantly increased risks of adverse infant outcomes,
including SGA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.15, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.03–1.29), LBW (aOR:
1.29, 95% CI: 1.16–1.43), and PTB (aOR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.04–1.33).
Conclusions: The risk of adverse infant outcomes was significantly increased in women older than 35
years of age. These data would be useful for younger women to decide family-planning in advance.

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and
Reproductive Biology

journal homepage: www.else vie e/e jogrb


Research Article
Risk of Selected Fetal Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Advanced
Maternal Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Debre Markos
Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

Bikila Tefera Debelo ,1 Melaku Hunie Asratie ,2 and Abayneh Aklilu Solomon 3

1Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Science, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
2Department of Women’s and Family Health, School of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences,
University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
3Department of Clinical Midwifery, School of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar,
Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Bikila Tefera Debelo; [email protected]

Received 22 June 2020; Revised 3 August 2020; Accepted 7 December 2020; Published 24 December 2020

Academic Editor: Curt W. Burger

Copyright © 2020 Bikila Tefera Debelo et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Introduction. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age is defined as pregnancy at 35 years or older. Today, women postpone pregnancy
due to different socioeconomic and personal reasons. However, there was limited evidence on fetal adverse outcomes’ association
with pregnancy at an advanced maternal age in Ethiopia and particularly in the study area. )is study was aimed at assessing the effect
of pregnancy at an advanced age on selected neonatal adverse pregnancy outcomes in Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Ethiopia,
2019. Methods. Institution-based retrospective cohort study was conducted on 303 exposed (35 years and older) and 604 nonexposed
(20–34 years old) immediate postpartum women who delivered at Debre Markos Referral Hospital after 28 weeks of gestation. All
exposed women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were sampled, and systematic random sampling was employed for those in the
nonexposed group. )e data were collected from 1st of July to 30th of December, 2019, by face-to-face interview and extraction from
maternal chart using a structured questionnaire and data extraction checklist, respectively. Binary logistic regression (bivariate and
multivariable) model was fitted, and wealth index was analyzed by principal component analysis. Adjusted relative risk with respect
to 95% confidence interval was employed for the strength and directions of association between advanced maternal age and selected
adverse pregnancy outcomes, respectively. P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. Results. )e incidence of
adverse neonatal outcomes including stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birth weight in the advanced maternal age group was 13.


The trend in the relationship of advanced maternal age to preterm birth
and low birthweight

Kitae Sohna,b

aSchool of Economics and Finance, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; bDepartment of Economics, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea

Purpose: As women in developed countries tend to delay childbearing, it becomes more important
to understand the relationship of advanced maternal age to birth outcomes. We aimed to estimate
the trend in the relationship of advanced maternal age to preterm birth and low birthweight.
Materials and methods: We analysed 4,264,417 ethnically homogeneous, singleton firstborns,
born in hospitals to married couples in South Korea in 1997–2014. We regressed an indicator for
preterm birth or low birthweight on advanced maternal age, the baby’s sex, advanced paternal
age, and a set of socioeconomic status (SES) variables by year. We then collected the coefficient on
advanced maternal age and charted its trend. We repeated the same procedure for
4,153,313 second- and third births.
Results: When we controlled for only the baby’s sex, the relationship between advanced maternal
age and preterm birth dramatically weakened in the 2000s and slightly more thereafter: being an
older mother was related to a 3.5% point increase in preterm birth in the late 1990s, but this figure
decreased to less than 2% points by the early 2010s. Controlling for advanced paternal age slightly
decreased the relationship and controlling for SES hardly affected the relationship. We obtained
almost the same results for low birthweight. Second- and third-borns exhibited a declining, much
weaker influence of advanced maternal age on the birth outcomes.
Conclusions: In relative terms, mothers of advanced age were more likely to deliver preterm and
low birthweight babies than younger mothers. In absolute terms, however, the risk was small in
the 1990s and much smaller in the early 2010s.

Received 1 May 2017
Revised 14 August 2017
Accepted 23 August 2017
Published online 26 Septem-
ber 2017

Maternal age; preterm birth;
low birthweight; South


As women in developed countries tend to delay childbear-
ing [1,2], it becomes more important to understand the
relationship of advanced maternal age to birth outcomes.
Among birth outcomes, preterm birth and low birthweight
are important as they are related to adverse developmen-
tal, health, educational and economic outcomes in child-
hood and adulthood [3]. Researchers have typically tried to
determine whether advanced maternal age is adversely
related to these birth outcomes. Some studies reported no
statistically significant relationship [4–6], but literature
reviews concluded that the relationship did exist [7–9].

We contributed to the literature by charting the trend
in the relationship over a period of 18 years in a hom