You should respond to at least two of your peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts. Your responses must be substantive and not just agreeing with someone’s work. You need to add by explaining more, refuting a point or correcting a point.  a minimum of 150 words and one reference with in text citation, one reference for each respond.  

Discussion 1 Week 2 Discussion

Describe how genes interact with environmental factors to affect behavior

     Behavioral geneticists have found that specific genes can be attributed to certain psychological disorders (Durand et al., 2018). Many studies have also shown that a chaotic event in someone’s childhood can influence genes (Durand et al., 2018). So, for instance, if there was the death of someone they loved very much or childhood abuse of any kind, it can alter the gene and cause it to express negatively. There is substantial scientific evidence to show that one’s environment can influence an individual’s behavior (Boyce et al., 2020). 

What Major Neurotransmitters are Associated With Mood and How are They Involved in Abnormal Behavior?

     Neuroscience has shown through studies that some parts of the brain and neurotransmitters play a prominent role in people’s moods (Dfarhud et al., 2014). Mood is defined as a feeling that is born internally and impacts most aspects of an individual’s behavior (Kawai et al., 2022). These neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and endorphins (Dfarhud et al., 2014). 

     Dopamine is a neurotransmitter made in the portion of the brain called the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus of the brain (Juárez Olguín et al., 2016). It is believed that dopamine plays a vital role in the reward and movement part of one’s brain (Juárez Olguín et al., 2016). In other words, it is released when pleasure is felt, such as sex, smell, or something that brings joy and happiness.

     Serotonin is also a neurotransmitter that helps regulate behavior, mood, and memory (Bamalan & Al Khalili, 2022). Some evidence shows that a reduced level of serotonin contributes to major depressive disorders, low mood, and low feelings of self-worth (Bamalan & Al Khalili, 2022). Medications used to treat low levels of serotonin often help with depression.

     Norepinephrine (NE)  has been studied extensively over the years as it relates to suicide and other psychiatric disorders that increase the risk of suicide in patients (Chandley & Ordway, 2012). It has been found that when NE is depleted in the brain, it can result in depression (Chandley & Ordway, 2012). Caution must be used in treating bipolar 2 with NE or any antidepressant, as it can send the patient into a manic episode (Kurita, 2016).

     Endorphines are produced to relieve pain, reduce stress and improve mood (Cleveland Clinic, 2022). It is well known that endorphins are produced during exercise and other activities that “feel good.” Therefore, they can positively impact one’s outlook when they are made. This is why I believe exercise should be a part of any protocol to treat depression.

What role do emotions play in psychopathology?

     Emotions play a role in psychopathology because emotions are implicated