1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments.  Provide specific examples to agonists, antagonists, partial agonists and inverse agonists that we use in Psychotherapy
  2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
  3. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
  4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:

  • If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how and why. Include additional insights you gained.
  • If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your perspective.



Question 1

Based on the effects of a medication on the receptors, these medications may primarily be divided into antagonists and agonists. An agonist represents a medication that imitates signal ligand action through the activation of a receptor by binding. Conversely, antagonist medication binds to a receptor without activation. However, antagonists alleviate the receptor’s ability for activation by other agonists (Zamolodchikova et al., 2021). The agonist spectrum is classified into partial agonist, agonist, inverse agonist and antagonist. The agonist is responsible for channel opening for maximal frequency and amount for the binding site. In contrast, the antagonist, centrally sited at the spectrum, maintains a resting state while allowing channel opening. On the other hand, an inverse agonist keeps the ion channel inactive and closed. Lastly, antagonists can block materials in the agonist spectrum, which allows ions to return to a resting state. For an enhanced therapeutic action, ion flow and other signal transductions are needed with the right balance. This ideal state differs from one clinical case to the other depending on silent antagonism and agonism balance.

Question 2: g couple proteins vs. ion gated channels

Ligand-gated ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors represent two transmembrane protein types forming postsynaptic ion channels. G-couple proteins are, therefore, metabotropic receptors, while ion-gated channels are ionotropic receptors (Li et al., 2014). Gated ion channels involve the direct opening of ion channels through neurotransmitter binding, while g couple of proteins is involved in indirect ion channels binding with G-protein metabolic activation. In addition, ion-gated channels are coupled with ion channels, while G-proteins fail to couple with ion channels. Furthermore, gated ion channels represent a transmembrane ion-channel protein that opens to allow ion passage such as sodium, potassium and calcium into the membrane in response to a chemical messenger binding. On the other hand, G-coupled proteins are proteins in the cell membrane that bind extracellular substances and transmit signals to intracellular molecules named the G-protein from substances.

Question 3: Role of Epigenetics in the pharmacologic action

Epigenetics studies changes that affect the phenotype without leading to genotype changes. According to Lundstorm (2015), epigenetics may be defined as studying heritable but reversible gene expression changes without primary DNA sequence modifications. Each epigenetic gene regulation is essential for maintaining normal phenotypic cell activity and treatment for diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Question 4: information and medicine prescription

Drug pharmacology knowledge is vital for mental health nurses as it may