The cosmic question is: Why is it important to determine threats to internal validity in the quantitative study? This question offers a crucial aspect in understanding the internal validity concept in research. Also, it covers an extensive portion of the content learned this week. 

APA assignment example

Unmanaged hypertension increases a patient’s risk of developing life-threatening health complications like cardiovascular diseases like stroke and other diseases like kidney failure (Kjeldsen, 2018).

Kjeldsen, S. E. (2018). Hypertension and cardiovascular risk: general aspects. Pharmacological Research129, 95-99.

APA Assignment grading Rubric

APA Assignment grading Rubric



5 in-text citations formatted using current APA guidelines

10% for each correctly cited in-text citation


Reference list of 5 articles formatted using current APA guidelines

10% for each correctly cited reference list


Grand total


Why didn’t I listen to the librarian?


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My Top 5 Pieces of Advice

1. Go to every class, even when you don’t feel like it.

2. Read your syllabus.

3. Professors want you to succeed, talk to them, ask questions, go to their office hours.

4. Do all the readings.

5. Prepare and plan.

Presentation Overview

Discuss basic elements of writing and research, including citation

Evaluate sources

Explore Library Databases Narrow/Refine; Tools/Features

Additional resources (LibGuides, OWL, etc)


On Writing

Research is formalized curiosity: Not too narrow, not too broad, topic resonates w/ you

Don’t underestimate time it takes to do proper research and find the right sources

Reminder: Always take preliminary passes at databases to refine/refocus future searches

Do not settle your argument before beginning research. Seeking sources that “prove” your argument leads to frustration and flawed research.

Reminder: Scholarly research on new (and often hyper specific) topics may not exist. Don’t get frustrated. Take a broader view and look for similar/related topics

Always ask your professor!

Does your source pass The CRAAP Test?






APA Basics

Set of rules & guidelines used to organize the content of a written work, cite references, and prepare a research paper or manuscript for publication in certain disciplines such as business, education, nursing, psychology, and sociology

Formatting: Double space your text, 1 inch margins, 12 pt. Times New Roman font

For Major Sections: Title Page (including running header); Abstract; Body; References

Main Body

Title – Centered, first letter of all major words capitalized. Do not bold, italicize, or underline

Introduction – Indent ½ inch for first paragraph and all following paragraphs. Present problem that your paper addresses

Headings – Organize body of paper for the reader. Level 1 header centered, bolded. Level 2 header flush left, bolded. Level 3 indented ½ inch, bolded.

Conclusion – “Conclusion” as Level 1 header; Restates problem addressed by your paper and offers areas for further research


Privileges Research Currency

Active Voice

Avoid stereotypes, bias, and offensive language

Respect Intellectual