Description Develop a 3 to 5 minute persuasive presentation that presents your position on an aspect or aspects of a coaching program (e.g., How does coaching reward the Marine, leader, and/or unit? How has coaching affected a Marine’s leadership development? Why and how should a leader implement a coaching plan?). The objective of your presentation is to persuade your audience that coaching is (or is not) an important leadership tool needed to develop subordinates and improve a unit’s strength. Your presentation/speech should have an introduction, body, and conclusion. Rehearse in front of an audience to get critical feedback. Your presentation should be : · A one-slide PowerPoint with your presentation script being 500 to 800 words provided as the speaker notes. Additionally, you will be required to provide a single-page visual aid that supports your presentation. This can be a “handout” for the audience. Acceptable formats include Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, or PDF. For further research beyond the course materials, use the link below to explore the occupational fields of coaching. Search the profiles for coach/trainer/teacher/educator on 5 attachments Slide 1 of 5 attachment_1 attachment_1 attachment_2 attachment_2 attachment_3 attachment_3 attachment_4 attachment_4 attachment_5 attachment_5 UNFORMATTED ATTACHMENT PREVIEW CC6915HW: COACHING PRESENTATION LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT I Background: In the 1980s, NAVMC 2795, “A Users Guide to Counseling,” solidified coaching as an effective leadership tool capable of instilling esprit de corps in Marines and positively influencing individual and group performance. Over the years, coaching has remained invaluable to Marine leaders to develop confidence in subordinates and foster readiness and camaraderie in their units. Prior to seminar, develop and prepare a persuasive presentation on coaching. You are limited to a oneslide document with extensive notes, a tri-fold brochure, or a combination of a video clip and one of the above. Static media, such as a 3D model, is also acceptable. The media used must support your presentation and meet the objective of persuading your peers why coaching is or is not one of the most important leadership tools needed to develop subordinates and improve a unit’s strength. Ensure you review the grading rubric and conduct multiple rehearsals. You will be evaluated on the delivery and effectiveness of your presentation. Your presentation should be more than three but less than five minutes and should convince your adjunct faculty and student peers of your ideas on coaching. Assignment: 1. Prepare a 3 to 5 minute persuasive presentation to support your position on an aspect(s) of a coaching program (e.g., Why and how should a leader implement a coaching plan? How has coaching affected a Marine’s leadership development? How does coaching reward the Marine, leader, and/or unit?). 2. Create a visual aid that supports your presentation (electronic visual aids are limited to one page and must be uploaded via Moodle prior to the seminar). Acceptable formats include Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, JPEG, MPEG, or PDF. [Note: for non-electronic visual aids, upload a picture of your visual aid with a short description via Moodle prior to the seminar.] 3. For further research beyond the course materials, use the link below to explore the occupational fields of coaching. Search the profiles for coach/trainer/teacher/educator on 4. Persuade members of your seminar using effective communication skills and your visual aid in the time allotted. (Your presentation will be stopped at the 5-minute mark). [Note: If you are using handouts, bring enough copies for each member of your seminar and your adjunct faculty.] CC6915 COACHING RUBRIC 6500 CAREER SCHOOL SEMINAR PROGRAM The purpose of this Coaching Assignment is to assess the students understanding of the lesson material and educational objectives. The rubric is a guide to assist in assessing a student’s performance of this assignment. The 6915 homework assignment includes a visual aid and an oral presentation and are assessed separately. The student will create and upload their visual aid or a picture of their visual aid to Moodle prior to seminar. During the seminar, the student will present their presentation on coaching, utilizing their visual aid. The rubric is designed as a holistic scoring/grading tool. Once the total number of rubric points is tallied, simply apply those points to the total number of points for the course by placing them in the Moodle Gradebook. The Coaching Assignment is worth 50 points, which is 5% of your total grade. Criteria Unacceptable (0 – 79%) (0 – 7.9 pts) Satisfactory (80 – 89%) Commendable (90 – 100%) (8.0 – 8.9 pts) (9.0 – 10 pts) The persuasive presentation demonstrates limited or no understanding of the coaching purpose, challenges, and rewards. The persuasive presentation demonstrated little or no mastery of the educational objectives. The persuasive presentation demonstrates an understanding of most of the coaching purpose, challenges, and rewards. The persuasive presentation demonstrated successful mastery of some of the educational objectives. The persuasive presentation demonstrates an in-depth understanding of all or most of the coaching purpose, challenges, and rewards. The persuasive presentation demonstrated successful mastery of some or all of the educational objectives. Synthesis The characteristics, challenges, and opportunities are not clear and/or relevant, or the persuasive presentation integrates only some parts into a somewhat coherent whole. The links between the parts are unclear or are somewhat unclear. The links between the parts are completely inaccurate or only somewhat accurate. The persuasive presentation integrates the most relevant parts of the characteristics, challenges, and opportunities into a mostly coherent whole. The links between the parts are generally clear. The persuasive presentation successfully integrates all relevant parts of the characteristics, challenges, and opportunities into a coherent whole. The links between the parts are clear and insightful. Evaluation The persuasive presentation does not evaluate or poorly evaluates the purpose of coaching, what coaching offers, and the skills and abilities that enhance coaching ability. It makes inaccurate or poor judgments based on bad or erroneous internal evidence or external criteria. The persuasive presentation evaluates the purpose of coaching, what coaching offers, and the skills and abilities that enhance coaching ability, and makes acceptable judgments based on internal evidence or external criteria. The persuasive presentation evaluates the purpose of coaching, what coaching offers, and the skills and abilities that enhance coaching ability and makes insightful judgments based on internal evidence or external criteria. Understanding of Concepts (0 – 3.9 pts) Originality and use of course material Visual Aid (4.0 – 4.4 pts) (4.5 – 5.0) Original thought is limited or nonexistent; if present, it is overshadowed by others’ conclusions and is redundant. Original thought is present, but it relies heavily on others’ conclusions and is at times redundant. Original thought is fresh and unique; it is the synthesis of the author’s experience and knowledge of the course materials, and it is not redundant. Visual aid was not submitted or was submitted late in Moodle. Visual aid offered minimal or no support of the persuasive presentation. Visual aid was nominal and not utilized or rarely utilized during the presentation. Visual aid was submitted on time in Moodle. Visual aid supported the persuasive presentation. Visual aid was above standard and was mostly utilized during the persuasive presentation. Visual aid was submitted on time in Moodle. Visual aid completely supported the persuasive presentation. Visual aid was creative, effective, and well utilized during the persuasive presentation. Page 1 of 2 Score (0 – 7.9 pts) Oral Presentation Frequent mistakes in communication. Not convincing in use of language or message is unorderly and difficult to understand. (8.0 – 8.9 pts) Noticeable fluctuating rate of delivery, some mistakes in communication. Generally convincing use of language and message is sufficiently clear. Comments (9.0 – 10 pts) Fluctuating rate of delivery greatly enhances others learning. Few or no mistakes in communication. Confident delivery of concise and convincing message. Total Page 2 of 2 CC6915REQA LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT I The following read is taken from Marine Corps Order 1500.61, Marine Leader Development, dated 28 Jul 2017. 1. Situation a. While a formalized, structured approach to mentoring is no longer prescribed, mentoring remains an important component of developing Marines and is addressed in this Order along with teaching, coaching, and counseling. b. The Marine Corps makes Marines, wins battles, and ultimately returns quality citizens back to society. This Order builds on that foundation by addressing key elements in the development of Marines necessary for them to succeed in their units and in life. This Order also supports the objective of Marine Corps leadership as stated in the Marine Corps Manual (reference (a)): “to develop the leadership qualities of Marines to enable them to assume progressively greater responsibilities to the Marine Corps and Society.” c. The process of making Marines begins at entry-level training. This is a life-changing, transformative event which is sustained at follow-on schools and in successive units by leaders who are devoted to developing the next generation of Marines. While resources and methods vary over time and must be adapted to the individual and the environment, the spirit in which leaders prepare Marines and Sailors for future challenges was captured by our 13th Commandant, General John A. Lejeune, when he compared the senior/subordinate relationship to that of a teacher and scholar, or a parent and child (Encl (1)). d. Our commitment to developing Marines is closely linked to our warfighting philosophy (reference (b)). Maneuver warfare places a high priority on decentralized execution and exploiting opportunities in the absence of explicit orders. This method of warfighting demands leaders of high moral character and professional competence who are not just technically and tactically proficient but who earn and breed trust among subordinates. These leaders in turn form the foundation of effective warfighting units characterized by mutual understanding, implicit communication, and esprit de corps. 2. Cancellation. NAVMC DIR 1500.58 and MCO 1500.58. 3. Mission. Marine leaders, relying on timeless principles of good leadership and the guidelines set forth in this Order, develop Marines and Sailors in order to sustain the transformation, help them achieve their full potential, and prepare them for long-term personal and professional success. 4. Execution a. Commander’s Intent and Concept of Operations (1) Commander’s Intent (a) Purpose. To provide a common framework and practical tools to assist leaders in developing all Marines and Sailors to achieve their full potential and be successful. (b) Endstate. Leaders have set conditions for all Marines to succeed, personally and professionally. Leaders have established a culture where ongoing and regular interaction and feedback assist Marines in their individual development. Marines understand, embrace, and live our core values both on-duty and off-duty and are prepared to assume progressively greater Page 1 of 6 leadership responsibilities. (2) Concept of Operations (a) Effective leaders take a holistic approach to developing subordinates. Leaders model behaviors consistent with our core values and serve as teachers and coaches. They instruct, encourage and demonstrate a vested interest in the success of those they lead. Leadership is a privilege and it is imperative that leaders pass on their knowledge and experience to those they serve. The most effective leaders never miss a chance to teach and coach, approaching every interaction as an opportunity. (b) The development of Marines and Sailors is a deliberate process, driven by commanders and leaders, and includes all Marines and Sailors. Regular teaching, coaching, counseling, and mentoring between Marine leaders and subordinates is vital. Some counseling requirements are mandatory. Reference (f) directs that an initial counseling take place between Reporting Seniors (RS) and Marines Reported On (MRO) and reference (g) prescribes proficiency and conduct counseling at regular intervals. However, it is also important that leaders be alert to important events and milestones in the lives of Marines which naturally present opportunities to teach and coach. Examples include: becoming eligible for promotion or reenlistment, the birth of a child, a permanent change of station (PCS) move, buying a first car or house, selection to a resident school, or special training, etc. These events present opportunities for leaders to pass along perspective, wisdom, and encouragement. (c) As Marines, our approach to leadership means being aware of and involved in the lives of those we lead. Effective and engaged leaders do this not to be intrusive but because they care and because they understand there is no other way to look after the total welfare and development of their subordinates. Unlike any other organization, we expect our leaders to have knowledge of all aspects of the lives of their Marines and Sailors, from the names and ages of their children to their educational and fitness goals, and to their living conditions, both on and off base. We cannot develop Marines to their fullest potential without truly knowing about them as individuals. We must know their past, their present situation, and their future goals. (d) Functional Areas of Marine Leader Development. The following six functional areas of leader development provide a comprehensive framework to focus training and coaching/counseling sessions. The Marine Leader Development website: contains a more detailed description of each functional area and supporting resources. 1. Fidelity. Faithfulness to one another, our Corps, and the Nation. It is expressed through our motto, “Semper Fidelis,” meaning “Always Faithful,” as well as our core values, leadership traits and principles, heritage, and high standards of ethical conduct. 2. Fighter. The cumulative skill-sets and knowledge that make Marines wellrounded warriors. This addresses Professional Military Education (PME), as well as the classifications of duties, such as Military Occupational Specialty (MOS)/Navy Enlisted Code (NEC)/Navy Officer Billet Classification (NOBC), and corresponding standards of performance, interpersonal communication skills, and on and off-duty education. This area also helps focus training of both individuals and the team. 3. Fitness. Physical, mental, spiritual, and social health and well-being. Ensuring holistic well-being boosts morale, cohesiveness, and resiliency – enabling Marines to Page 2 of 6 execute the toughest challenges and recuperate in shorter time. 4. Family. The bedrock, fundamental social relationships from which Marines draw strength, and cumulatively make a stronger Corps. The challenges of military life require families to be resilient like the Marines they support. 5. Finances. The disciplined practice of personal financial responsibility. Marines and Sailors who are financially responsible mitigate stress and are better prepared for deployments, family changes, big financial decisions (e.g., buying a home of vehicle), and transition to civilian life. 6. Future. The practice of setting and accomplishing goals in all of the other five functional areas of leader development. Goal-setting maximizes the likelihood of personal and professional success, which carries through to civilian life. b. Tasks (1) Commanding Officers (Lieutenant Colonel and above) (Main Effort) (a) In accordance with the references and the guidance contained in this Order, deliberately integrate the six functional areas of Marine Leader Development into operations, training, and unit activities. Examples of unit best practices and unit leader development orders can be found on the Marine Leader Development website. (b) Ensure leaders at all levels are afforded the necessary time and resources to effectively coach and counsel their subordinates. Further guidance on required and recommended occasions are provided in paragraph 4.c. of this Order. (c) Instruct junior leaders in the use of supporting tools to assist them in leading and developing Marines (e.g., purpose and content of Marine Leader notebooks, six functional area Discussion Guides, example coaching/counseling forms, leadership assessments, MOS Roadmaps, etc). (d) Share Marine Leader Development initiatives, lessons learned, and best practices with higher, adjacent, and subordinate commands and with the Lejeune Leadership Institute. The Marine Leader Development website will serve as a repository for the most up-todate tools and resources across the Marine Corps. (e) Regardless of rank, identify, assign, and recognize personnel within the command who have subject matter expertise (SME) in the six functional leader development areas that may be beneficial across the command (e.g., command financial counselor, Chaplain, Family Readiness Officer, Force Fitness Instructor, etc.) (2) Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (CG MCCDC). Develop, catalog, and make available training and educational resources that can be used by Marine leaders to develop themselves and subordinates in the six functional leader development areas. (3) Deputy Commandant, Manpower and Reserve Affairs (DC MRA). Support CG MCCDC by developing and making available resources in the six functional leader development areas that can be used by unit commanders and individual Marines to develop themselves and support their families. c. Coordinating Instructions Page 3 of 6 (1) Terms (a) Teaching. Teaching is the process of imparting knowledge from one with experience or expertise, to one without the same level of experience or expertise. For Marine leaders, teaching is a continuing action. (b) Coaching. Coaching is closely related to teaching. It is the process of both encouraging and demanding output. Coaching focuses on both individual and team success. Successful coaching draws greater performance from individuals and teams than they might realize they possess. All coaches are teachers. Good leaders are coaching every day. Good coaches welcome questions and feedback. Coaching and counseling are complementary actions. Coaching provides encouragement to succeed in stated goals. It is forward-looking. The best leaders coach every day and counsel as required. For Marine leaders, coaching is a continuing action. (c) Counseling. Counseling is the mechanism Marine leaders use to provide feedback on performance. Too often, Marines and leaders view counseling in a negative light. Done effectively, counseling can be either positive or negative and depends on the specific circumstances of performance. It is the process of two-way communication between senior and junior to help achieve or maintain the highest possible level of performance. Counseling allows the senior to identify both areas of excellence and deficiency. It also allows the junior the opportunity to ask questions and seek guidance in order to improve. Counseling primarily focuses on actions that have already occurred. Within counseling, teaching and coaching can occur. (d) Mentoring. Mentoring is a voluntary relationship between two individuals and should not be directed or forced. One individual has experience and knowledge and is seeking to guide another whose development they have taken interest in. The other individual seeks to learn, gain experience, and model his or her development after the person providing guidance. Mentoring happens most effectively when two individuals find commonality and although it is not limited to the chain of command, the initial relationship between leader and led should contain an element of mentoring. Most leaders naturally mentor others. In a mentoring relationship, teaching, coaching, and counseling usually occur. (2) Occasions. Baseline counseling requirements set forth in this Order and associated references include establishment of RS and MRO relationship; issuance of a fitness report; assignment of proficiency and conduct markings; eligibility for promotion; joining a new unit; PCS; assignment to Force Preservation; and major changes in billet responsibilities. These occasions serve as the minimum requirement, are not all-inclusive, and should be balanced against significant events and milestone that occur throughout a Marine’s career and life. (3) Assessments. Commanders and leaders are encouraged to continually assess the effectiveness of leader development efforts. Methods for assessment include the CMC Command Climate Survey, unit inspections, and focus groups. The Marine Leader Development website contains examples of assessment best practices. (4) Best Practices. Commanders and leaders are encouraged to share best practices within the chain of command, laterally among fellow leaders and units, and across the institution via feedback to Marine Corps University. The Lejeune Leadership Institute will serve as the repository for lessons learned and best practices and will provide a mechanism for distribution Page 4 of 6 across the Total Force. Submissions are encouraged not only by units, but by individuals as well. 5. Administration and Logistics a. Resources. The Marine Leader Development website organizes a wealth of web-based resources and leadership best practices throughout the Marine Corps. References (g) through (l) are excellent resources in the areas of Marine Corps leadership and leadership development. Additional resources are also available at most bases and stations, and most importantly among those in units who possess the experience, character and passion to develop fellow Marines and Sailors. b. Documentation and Records Management (1) This Order does not specify the use of certain forms or formats, but leaders are expected to keep notes and records that enable them to better develop their subordinates. Use of tools such as Marine Leader Notebooks are not meant to just document (i.e., “paper drill” or “check the block”), but rather to help leaders maintain a record of goals, progress, and information related to a Marine’s personal and professional development that, in turn, leads to more meaningful coaching and counseling. (2) Records created as a result of this Order shall be managed according to National Archives and Records Administration approved dispositions per reference (m) to ensure proper maintenance, use, accessibility and preservation, regardless of format or medium. c. Privacy Act. Any misuse or unauthorized disclosure of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) may result in both civil and criminal penalties. The DON recognizes that the privacy of an individual is a personal and fundamental right that shall be respected and protected. The DON’s need to collect, use, maintain, or disseminate PII about individuals for purposes of discharging its statutory responsibilities will be balanced against the individuals’ right to be protected against unwarranted invasion of privacy. All collection, use, maintenance, or dissemination of PII will be in accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (reference (n)) and implemented per reference (o). d. Support. Support is available from: (1) The Lejeune Leadership Institute. Website: (2) Commercial phone: (703) 432-4688. 6. Command and Signal a. Command. This Order is applicable to the Marine Corps Total Force. b. Signal. This Order is effective the date signed. Robert B. Neller DISTRIBUTION: PCN 10201533100 Page 5 of 6 United States Marine Corps Lejeune Leadership Institute LtGen John A. Lejeune: Relations between Officers and Men Title: Author/Presenter: Date: Marine Corps Order No. 29 (Relations Between Officers and Men [and Women]) Major General John A Lejeune, USMC Commandant of the Marine Corps 14 August 1920 Young Marines respond quickly and readily to the exhibition of qualities of leadership on the part of their officers. Each officer must endeavor by all means in his power to develop within himself those qualities of leadership, including industry, justice, self-control, unselfishness, honor, and courage, which will fit him to be a real leader of men and which will aid in establishing the relationship described below. The spirit of comradeship and brotherhood in arms which has traditionally existed throughout the ranks of the Marine Corps is a vital characteristic of the Corps. It must be fostered and kept alive and made the moving force in all Marine Corps organizations. The relation between officers and enlisted men should in no sense be that of superior and inferior nor that of master and servant, but rather that of teacher and scholar. In fact, it should partake of the nature of the relation between father and son, to the extent that officers, especially commanders, are responsible for the physical, mental, and moral welfare, as well as the discipline and military training of the men under their command who are serving the Nation in the Marine Corps. The recognition of this responsibility on the part of officers is vital to the well-being of the Marine Corps. It is especially so for the reason that so large a proportion of the men enlisting are under 21 years of age. These men are in the formative period of their lives and officers owe it to them, to their parents, and to the Nation, that when discharged from the service they should be far better men physically, mentally, and morally than they were when they enlisted. To accomplish this task successfully a constant effort must be made by all officers to fill each day with useful and interesting instructions and wholesome recreation for the men. This effort must be intelligent and not perfunctory, the object being not only to eliminate idleness, but to train and cultivate the bodies, the minds, and the spirit of our men. It will be necessary for officers not only to devote their close attention to the many questions affecting the comfort, health, morals, religious guidance, military training, and discipline of the men under their command, but also to actively enlist the interest of their men in building up and maintaining their bodies in the finest physical condition; to encourage them to improve their professional knowledge and to make every effort by means of historical, educational, and patriotic addresses to cultivate in their hearts a deep abiding love of the Corps and Country. The provisions of the above apply generally to the relationships of non-commissioned officers with their subordinates and apply specifically to non-commissioned officers who may be exercising command authority. Page 6 of 6 CC6915REQB LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT I This read was extracted from the obsolete publication, MCRP 6-11D, 28 June 1999, Sustaining the Transformation. It is intended to provide the student with a better understanding of transformation. Today, we are making the Marines of tomorrow, who will face the future battlefield and win; we are transforming our young Americans into Marines. Why the Transformation The first reason for the transformation was that we saw a change in the operating environment in which our Marines would be employed and we needed to prepare our young Marines for future battles. Decentralized operations, advanced technology, increasing weapons lethality, asymmetric threats, the mixing of combatants and noncombatants, and urban combat will be the way we fight vice the exception in the 21st century. To succeed in a changing operating environment, our Marines must be good decision- makers. They must be trained to the highest standard. They must be self-confident. They must have absolute faith in the members of their unit. This is why we have instituted the Marine Corps Values Program for all Marines, and why we have enhanced the way we transform America’s sons and daughters into United States Marines. We must ensure that our newest Marines fully understand and appreciate what the Marine Corps represents and that, by becoming members of the world’s fighting elite, they uphold the sacred trust we have with our great nation and with each other. The transformation is designed specifically to contribute to the making of this kind of Marine. The second reason for the transformation was derived from subtle changes in the norms and expectations of America’s youth. The term generation X, often associated with a negative connotation, is the generation from which we will recruit the Marines who will be our future. Therefore, we must understand how this generation views the world and what motivates them. In 1994, we hired a team of psychologists to tell us about generation X. From them, we learned that young people today are looking for standards; they want to be held accountable. For the most part they don’t mind following, but they can lead, and they want to lead. Most want to be part of something bigger than themselves. They want to be something special. Most believe in God. Many don’t fully recognize it as such, but they want to have faith in something greater than themselves. These wants cause them to join gangs, fraternities, clubs, and other causes. These are also the same attributes and attitudes that offer the Marine Corps a tremendous opportunity. Genera- tion X does not want to be babied. These young Americans are looking for a real challenge. They desperately want to be part of a winning team; they crave the stature associated with being one of the best. From them will come the Marines of the future—the warriors of the 21st century. The transformation gives them exactly what they want, and it also give us what we need. However, transformation is not just a new block of instruction. It is not a new event introduced at recruit training. Transformation is an ongoing, dynamic process. It is a process that begins with an individual’s first contact with a Marine recruiter and continues throughout a Marine’s life. Transformation has five phases: recruitment, recruit training, cohesion, sustainment, and citizenship. The remainder of this chapter was removed for the purpose of brevity. Page 1 of 1 CC6915REQC LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT I Coaching: A study in leadership by Lt Col Lance A. Mc Daniel LtCol McDaniel is currently the Commanding Officer of 3d Battalion, 10th Marines. Marine Corps Gazette; Nov2007; ProQuest Military Collection pg.57 Nothing is more fundamentally essential to the success and efficacy of a team or organization than its leadership. Leaders establish goals for their organizations and supervise the achievement of those goals. A leader interacts with people and influences them in the attainment of the leader’s vision—ideally by sharing that vision in a fashion whereby organization members embrace it as their own. Leadership in this sense has near universal application. Every organization needs leadership. One model of leadership that many military men and women will be familiar with, one with almost direct and undeniable applicability, is coaching. There is great similarity between team sports and the military. Many lessons from team sports have value for military leaders to the extent that team sports can present a “leadership lab” of sorts for teaching the art and science of leading people. This assertion applies not only to participants of team sports but also to “students” of team sports. The coaching form or style of leadership has proven utility not only in sports but also in other activities and organizations. Coaching Defined In team sports the principal leader is the coach. Coaching is teaching. However, teaching in this sense is quite expansive and comprehensive. Coaches teach more than skills and tactics (though they certainly do that). Coaches teach “the game” in its entirety. In fact, some of the best coaches in sports teach life skills and leadership. Page 1 of 7 “His experiences as a coach—and there were to be many more—strengthened his love for the game. Like many fans, he made football into something more than just an athletic contest. The act of coaching brought out his best traits—his organizational ability, his energy and competitiveness, his enthusiasm and optimism, his willingness to work hard at a task that intrigued him, his powers of concentration, his talent for working with the material he had instead of hoping for what he did not have, and his gift for drawing out the best in his players.” —Stephen E. Ambrose on GEN Dwight Eisenhower They teach character, responsibility, teamwork, and discipline. When his team does well, the coach gives the players the credit. When the team performs poorly, the coach accepts responsibility. A great part of coaching is obtaining best effort performance from the people who compose his team. The best coaches do not focus on winning. Winning is a byproduct or outgrowth of good playing. Marine Leaders as Coaches MajGen John A. Lejeune exhorted Marine leaders of all grades to make their relationships with subordinates that of teacher to scholar. MajGen Lejeune believed that leaders were responsible for the physical, mental, and moral welfare, as well as the discipline, of their Marines. Successful coaching embodies these same aspects. If Maj Gen Lejeune were to exhort the Marine Corps Page 2 of 7 today, he’d probably say much the same thing as he did so many years ago—but he would probably say coach to athlete. Simply put, Marine leaders can benefit from experience in the art of coaching. This is true at every level, but it is particularly true at the small unit level. As a coach, a Marine leader will not only determine the plan for what he intends to accomplish with his unit, but he will also prepare and lead his Marines in the accomplishment of that plan the mission. The coach understands his responsibility to develop his people, to prepare them for the challenges of combat. His Marines may not even know they are being taught. Some of the best coaches are able to teach in such a manner that their people do not even know they are growing. The best coaches influence their people to a depth and to a degree that far exceed the specific skills of a game. The best coaches tap into the very psyche of their people to motivate and develop. There is no game more intense in every sense than combat operations, and all of the best coaching philosophies are even more applicable in this most dangerous affair than in any game played on a court or grid iron. However, the lessons are essentially the same. Moreover, the art and science of coaching is teachable. Characteristics of Effective Coaches Leaders of Marines must begin with personal knowledge and a competency based on professional knowledge. However, for Marine leaders at every level, knowledge of what to do as a Marine is not enough. Leaders must be able to transfer what they know to the people entrusted to their leadership and care. This transfer of knowledge must go well beyond the basic skills required of Marines and include the leaders’ standards, organizational values, core beliefs, and ways of operating. To make this transfer possible, leaders must be teachers. To be effective as coach-type leaders, the leaders must first become good teachers. Effective coaches know their game. In fact, good coaches become genuine students of their game. There can be no end to the hunger for learning. The same is true for Marine leaders who must continue their professional development throughout their careers. To be a good teacher, one must first be a student himself. This learning is more than going through the motions of meeting required learning objectives and gets to a level in which the leader has a certain passion for growth and a desire to pass that knowledge on to others. Most Marine leaders, just like most coaches, can benefit from following the simple laws of learning: explanation, demonstration, imitation, correction as necessary, and repetition. In this model the leader explains the training Page 3 of 7 task and then conducts a demonstration of what he wants to see. Practical application often works best, so the leader gives his Marines a chance to display their mastery by imitating what they have witnessed. The leader makes corrections and refinements as necessary until he is confident that his Marines can execute the task properly and to his satisfaction. To drive the instruction home, the leader has his Marines repeat the task over and over. Marines learn through repetitious performance of a task. The Marines need to repeat it properly every time. Everyone learns at different speeds and in different ways, so leaders must have patience. Actions speak louder than words and so leaders are teaching even when they are not speaking—through personal example and demonstration.2 Good coaches develop a high level of credibility with their athletes. In the same way, Marine leaders must develop credibility based on their perceived trustworthiness and competence. Both coaches and leaders of Marines need interpersonal or inter-relational skills because leadership is a people business. Showing a heartfelt concern for the welfare of your Marines is the right thing to do, but it also leads to improved effectiveness. Like all people. Marines want to work for a leader who cares about them individually. Honed individual skills lead to strong team play. (Photo by Col C. Alex Hen-on.) This simple phenomenon can be seen in high school athletics in which a successful basketball or football coach has players who develop a particular affinity for their coach and do everything in Page 4 of 7 their power to avoid ever letting the coach down. There is no list of characteristics that could ever be comprehensive or even meet with total agreement from all quarters. However, there are several traits that are common to coaches and Marine leaders—arguably to the extent that without these traits success is improbable. Leaders must have integrity. Integrity is the most important leadership characteristic. Leaders must also be hard working, enthusiastic, and always seeking to maintain the initiative. Good leaders work to develop team spirit in their units—but without alienating people who are not part of the team. Finally, there is an element of a man that goes beyond his exterior, beyond his professional persona and personality. That deeper element is the leader’s personal faith. While it may not be appropriate to share his personal religious beliefs with his “team,” the leader himself, if he is to have depth as a person, must be cognizant of the role his faith has for him. A leader’s faith can give him a moral compass to do the right thing, even when it is not easy and even in the most trying and turbulent times of combat. The leader’s faith can sustain him and help him to bear the responsibilities that he has in accomplishing the mission and taking care of his people. A leader provides the moral foundation for his unit. His faith is the bedrock upon which he must build. Applied Leadership Coaches want to exact the most from their players, but this observation goes well beyond pure effort. Coaches need their players to develop skill and athleticism. While individual performance is important, what matters most is how the team performs, and for that reason coaches teach team performance. Dean Smith, the former head coach of the University of North Car Carolina men’s basketball team, had a motto, “Play hard, play smart, and play together.” This motto is good advice for Marine leaders as well. Units that train hard, work diligently to develop tactical savvy, and function well as teams tend to do well in combat. Coaching is generally considered applied leadership where the focus is specifically on performance. However, most coaches will say that they wear many hats, including teacher, mentor, role model, disciplinarian, counselor, and motivator. Coaches do all of that and so do Marine leaders. There is little utility in trying to isolate the functions of a coach, as if the role could be narrowly defined. The same applies to Marine leaders. No narrow job description will suffice. How Do We Teach Coaching? Page 5 of 7 Accepting that we need to teach Marine leaders how to be coaches, just how do we go about doing that? We start by teaching Marine leaders to be teachers. Perhaps that is an oversimplification, but coaching revolves so fundamentally around the ability to teach, that it must be central to the art and science. From the standpoint of combat development, all formal schools for our junior leaders need to include periods of instruction on teaching. This can actually work well in many courses, because there is no better way to learn than to have to teach a subject. Even if the subject is fairly new to the teacher, the ability of the teacher to organize his thoughts and explain something, demonstrate it, have the students imitate the demonstration and, finally, critique the students makes for a very productive form of learning for the teacher. Some of the most successful coaches in sports have paid attention to details small and large. One great college coach used to sit his players down and teach them how to lace up their basketball shoes properly. Some aspects of Marine Corps formal schools apply the building block approach so that when a noncommissioned officer or staff noncommissioned officer returns for the next higher level of professional military education, he is exposed to a more advanced form of what he has already been taught. That is exactly what we need to do with coaching. As a Marine advances in rank, we expect him to advance his coaching ability. While formal schools may be a place to start, no one could develop coaching competence based solely on the brief exposure he receives at a relatively brief course. Educational advancement must continue in the Operating Forces through the development of practical skills for teaching and supervising performance. “Eisenhower’s dedication to teamwork was, of course, a theme thatcharacterized his whole life, stretching back to the Abilene High School baseball and football games.”‘ —Stephen E. Ambrose Conclusion Units need competent Marines. Units also need competent leaders. The Marine Corps does a very good job of creating competence in the military occupational skills. Traditionally, the Marine Corps teaches leaders the skills necessary to become competent at their assigned duties. Unfortunately, teaching leadership—actually teaching people how to lead—is not something that the Marine Corps does as well as it could. The art and science of leadership is not so easy to pass along. Libraries are literally filled with books on leadership and management. People acquire advanced degrees in which a major focus is on organizational leadership. Unfortunately, relatively little Page 6 of 7 attention is focused on how leaders should go about leading. Rather than devote a great deal of time to teaching organizational behavior, a more relevant approach, especially for our Marine junior leaders, is to teach them to be effective small unit coaches. For many Marines, especially those who grew up playing team sports, the role of the coach is something they will understand and with which they will feel entirely comfortable. As Marines see themselves as the coaches for their squads, gun sections, or platoons, they will come to understand their role and better appreciate the scope of their duties. Notes 1 Ambrose, Stephen F.., Eisenhower: Soldier, General of the Army; President-Elect, 1890— I 952, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1983 p. 51 The quote refers to his early years at West Point when he coached the junior varsity football team. 2 Wooden, John and Steve Jamison, Wooden on Leadership, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005, p. 95. Most of the ideas in these two paragraphs come from Coach John Wooden. 3 Smith, Dean and Gerald D. Bell, The Carolina way: Leadership Lessons from a Life in Coaching, Penguin Group, New York, 2004, p. 20. 4 Ambrose, p. 272. Reprinted by permission of the Marine Corps Association. Further reproduction prohibited without the permission of the Marine Corps Association. Page 7 of 7 Purchase answer to see full attachment Tags: Coaching Plan communication skills Marine Corps coaching program leadership development User generated content is uploaded by users for the purposes of learning and should be used following Studypool’s honor code & terms of service.