Review week 4 content and answer the following questions. 

  1. Give an example in which you used strategies as listed in chapter 13 to express an opinion in an assertive way.
  2. List three criteria for the appropriate use of humor in healthcare. Can you give an example of one?
  3. Specificity is an important aspect of nursing documentation- what tools does your organization use for nursing handoff? Elaborate on how you determine the critical information you relay during handoff utilizing your agencies specific tool.
  4. Difficult patients and patient complaints have a common theme based on the articles in your reading. Provide an example of a difficult patient encounter you experienced.  Did you experience the distancing phenomena? Why or why not?
  5. With the new knowledge gained this week describe how you can use questioning techniques to demonstrate empathy, sympathy, and professionalism to deescalate the difficult patient.


3rd Edition

Linda M. Gorman, APRN, BC, MN, CHPN, OCN
Palliative Care Clinical Nurse Specialist
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Los Angeles, California

Assistant Professor
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California

Donna F. Sultan, RN, MS
Mental Health Counselor, RN
West Valley Mental Health Center
Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health
Los Angeles, California

00Gorman(F)-FM 11/8/07 10:54 AM Page i

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Gorman, Linda M.
Psychosocial nursing for general patient care / Linda M. Gorman, Donna F. Sultan. —

3rd ed.
p. ; cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-1784-1
ISBN-10: 0-8036-1784-4

1. Psychiatric nursing—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Nursing—Social aspects—
Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Sultan, Donna. II. Title.
[DNLM: 1. Nursing Care—psychology—Handbooks. 2. Nurse-Patient Relations—

Handbooks. 3. Nursing Assessment—Handbooks. WY 49 G671p 2008]
RC440.G659 2008
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Authorization to photocopy items for in

224  |  Nursing Open. 2018;5:224–


Countless number of encounters occur in healthcare organizations
every day. Encounter is a concept related to the words meeting, ap-
pointment or relationship but diverges as the encounter regularly
means more a personal contact between a few people that takes
place planned or unplanned, that come across and get in touch
with each other (Westin, 2008). Some healthcare encounters are
short and temporary while others are long- lasting and recurring.
Short and temporary healthcare encounters between patients and
caregivers require more things to be taken care of in a short pe-
riod of time (Holopainen, Nyström, & Kasén, 2014). Lack of time in
healthcare encounters can therefore be an obstacle to the develop-
ment of a caring relationship, as they require a high level of quality

communication between the patients and the professionals (Nåden
& Eriksson, 2002).

To ensure a good healthcare encounter, there must be sufficient
time for communication, enough resources and opportunities for
patients and professionals to create a meaningful relationship, re-
gardless of the duration of the encounter (Nygren Zotterman, Skär,
Olsson, & Söderberg, 2015). From the patient’s perspective, a mean-
ingful relationship is often described as individualized attention fo-
cusing on his or her needs (Attree, 2001) that allows him or her to be
involved in the decision- making process (Covington, 2005). A good
and meaningful relationship, from the patient’s perspective, is char-
acterized by gratitude and trust (Gustafsson, Gustafsson, & Snellman,
2013). This is in line with a person- centred perspective, which im-
plies working towards an integration of “being with,” the relational

Received: 23 October 2017  |  Accepted: 25 January 2018

DOI: 10.1002/nop2.132


Patients’ complaints regarding healthcare encounters and

Lisa Skär1  | Siv Söderberg2

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
© 2018 The Authors. Nursing Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

1Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of
Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden
2Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid
Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden

Lisa Skär, Department of Health, Blekinge
Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
Email: [email protected]

Aim: To explore patient- reported complaints regarding communication and health-
care encounters and how these were responded to by healthcare