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1. Nursing is a profession that requires a lot of practice. It involves the development of competencies that require mental shifting in both education and practice. There are processes of knowledge development that require the nurses to get through a thinking process that challenges them. It helps individuals in acquiring innovative ways of doing their practice (Im, 2021). In the current upsurge in health, there is a need for knowledge with advancement in technology. An example of middle range theory is the comfort theory that describes the comfort ability of the people seeking medical needs. It explains that comfort needs are as a result of stressful healthcare situations which the patient cannot provide on their own. Therefore, the theory provides the nurses with measure they need to take into consideration regarding the factors of the patient.

In the analysis of a theory, there is a need for understanding the internal and external considerations. In internal criticism, it is the inner structure while the external criticism is the peripheral relationship. In the internal structure of the theory, there is clarity. Although the theory may be difficult to read, in literature it is well presented and easy to understand. For more clarity, there is an evolution for most of the middle range theories including the comfort theory. Also, there is consistency in the definitions, principles, and interpretations. The assumptions of the theories are defined in an understandable manner. The assumptions are also undifferentiated throughout the literature of the theories. The theme of nursing is also adequate in the theories. They are specific to nursing and easily applicable in different settings (Puchi et al., 2021). For example, the comfort theory does not only describe the roles of the nurses, but also gives the outcomes that are important to the patients. The ideas of the theories in middle range are logical. There is flow of ideas that ultimately lead to a well-structured conclusion. Finally in the internal criticism, all the middle range theories have a great adherence to the standards of the theory.

In external criticism, there are the relationship between variable of each of the middle range theories. For example, the comfort theory has six concepts that are well related to the conceptual framework. Therefore, they can be well applied to both practice and research. Every theory is simple and thoroughly explained. Therefore, the theories can be applied to both nursing students and qualified nurses. The theories can also be applied in a wide range of settings. Although all the middle-range theories have limited concepts, they can be used in patients of all the age groups and in all healthcare settings. In terms of utility, the theories are useful in practice and research. There is use of some features that can easily be understood. For example, the comfort theory uses questionnaires to help the nurses to easily identify the comfort needs of a patient. Finally, the theory is important in that it addresses important practice issues that helps nurses in acquiring knowledge.

2. Nursing theories play a critical role in the nursing practice. The nursing theories are known to enlighten the society and the nursing community on the care concepts in relation to healthcare. The concepts helps the nurses understand and put in practice the evidence that supports the methodologies surrounding nursing practice. The current healthy system identifies nursing as a separate discipline and this is through understanding the role of nursing theories. Nursing practice is separate discipline from the general medicine and other sciences related to medicine. In addition to this, the nursing theories also help the nurses be familiar and understand their patients, thus being able to help the patients with healing process and achieve the best outcome in patient care. This means that the theories are designed to educate or inform the nurses on how they can be able to provide care. The care that they provide should respect patients and improve their health outcomes. The role of these theories is aimed at defining, predicting, and demonstrating nursing phenomenon.

There are several mid-range nursing theories. In fact, it is possible to claim that the result of every medical study embodies a mid-range hypothesis. In two newly released books, a number of specific middle-range hypotheses have been offered (Mudd et al., 2021). One book contains sections on the hypothesis of pain, uncomfortable symptoms, ego, rationalized action, and behavioral intention, the hypothesis of compassion and understanding, persistent sorrow, support networks, human relationships, forecasting, and leadership, speculations of comfort, well-being in life quality, primary prevention, and theories of the clinical reasoning practitioner. A concept of significance, a concept of self-transcendence, the theory of attentively embracing story, a theory of meaning in life, a theory of self-efficacy, a theory of horrible symptoms, a theory of parental stress and adjustment, the theory of community mobilization, and a theory of confusion and uncertainty in illness are all covered in the other book. It is not clear whether they are all intermediate nursing ideas, despite the fact that every theory in the two books has been put to the test in research done by nurses. For instance, psychology was where the theories of peer assistance, identity, rational action, and organized conduct were first created. However, one can contend that those views can be viewed as shared beliefs as a result of their evaluation in nursing contexts. The question as to whether nursing theories can improve the nursing field is subject to the impact of the theories on other domains.