Reply to at least two other student posts with a reflection of their response.

 In total, there would be 1 reply to each of the discussions of my classmates. The replies must have a maximum of 200 words and 1 reference each of the replies. Please make sure to provide citations and references (in APA, 7th ed. format) for your work. 

  the discussions are as follows:

Discussion # 1 :


Screening is a medical procedure that aims to detect conditions in individuals that do not particularly have symptoms. Additionally, depending on the type of screening it can have several advantages for individuals. For instance, for opportunistic screening individuals can present to the hospital and detect underlying conditions based on their symptoms. Therefore, early detection of certain conditions like breast cancer can significantly improve the treatment outcome. Additionally, screening has significantly helped reduce the mortality rate of several chronic infections like cancer (Mandrik et al., 2021). This is because, with early detection of diseases, physicians can administer several preventive measures to ensure that the patient’s health improves. Additionally, population screening is very essential for at-risk individuals, especially in reducing the spread of certain diseases like Hepatitis.

Another important advantage of medical screening is that it helps individuals to make positive lifestyle changes or improvements. For instance, a patient can decide to engage in health enhancement activities like exercise and proper diet after early detection of a condition. Screening is also important for an individual’s mental health (Mandrik et al., 2021). For instance, if an individual’s family has a history of cardiovascular infections which are significantly associated with genetics can have peace of mind after knowing their risk of obtaining the condition and begin preventive measures soon.

Despite the several advantages of screening, it may have several healthcare implications or disadvantages. For instance, screening cannot prevent an individual from contracting certain conditions like cancers (Green et al., 2020). Breast cancer screening may be detected through screening methods such as mammograms which on many occasions are uncomfortable and painful. The pain caused by mammograms during breast cancer screening can occur for days. Additionally, screening results may lead to negative effects when they are false positive or negative. For instance, a false positive screening result may lead to unnecessary worry. Additionally, a false positive result may also subject the patient to unnecessary treatment procedures. On the other hand, a false negative result may lead to adverse effects on the medical condition if it goes on for a long time without treatment, especially cancer.

Additionally, medical care costs including regular screening can be high for many individuals. For instance, in the United States of America, many people from low-income backgrounds do not have medical insurance. Therefore, making it challenging for them to access regular screening services hence they have poor medical outcomes. However, despite the challenges of screening, an individual needs to be screened regularly because it is proven to help reduce the mortality rate and improve treatment outcomes.


Mandrik, O., Tolma, E., Zielonke, N., Meheus, F., Ordóñez-Reyes, C., Severens, J. L., & Murillo, R. (2021). Systematic reviews as a “lens of evidence”: determinants of participation in breast cancer screening. Journal of Medical Screening28(2), 70-79.

Green, K., Winter, A., Dickinson, R., Graziadio, S., Wolff, R., Mallett, S., … & Park, E. (2020). What tests could potentially be used for the screening, diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 and what are their advantages and disadvantages. CEBM202013.


Discussion # 2 :


  One of the best innovations in healthcare since its inception is screening. Identifying a sickness before it is wholly manifested is astonishing as it assists with keeping the illness’ effects from ultimately setting in. The advantages and disadvantages of screening will be thoroughly examined.

            Screening offers a significant benefit regarding early illness identification. It enables individuals and healthcare providers to detect health issues early, which can mean the difference between recovery and a more severe outcome (Green et al., 2020). Cancer screening, for instance, is a great example. If cancer is found early, treatment can be started right away with the right steps. The early stages of cancer are typically easier and cheaper to treat than the more advanced ones. The role that screening plays in both prevention and treatment is yet another advantage. By directing screenings, medical services providers can decide the essential activities to promote general well-being. A good example is shown during the Coronavirus pandemic when patients proven to have the disease were isolated, helping to restrict its spread (Green et al., 2020).

            Another advantage of screening is its cost-effectiveness, which helps patients as well as healthcare organizations (Sohrabi et al., 2020). For instance, it is common practice today to screen for breast cancer. Early illness identification may result in considerable cost savings for the patient since early-stage cancer therapies are typically more economical than more advanced ones (Sohrabi et al., 2020). Additionally, screening delivers helpful information to individuals who do not have the condition, allowing them to take preventative action and safeguard their well-being from future harm.

            As screening outcomes may not always be entirely accurate, one significant drawback is the potential for false results (Savoji et al., 2019). Despite efforts to increase screening accuracy, it has been demonstrated that screening can lead to either false negatives or false positives (Sohrabi et al., 2020). Such errors can lead to unnecessary follow-up tests, increased anxiety, and the possibility of unnecessary treatments. Another disadvantage of screening is the added financial cost associated with it, particularly for less common diseases. Implementing comprehensive screening programs may strain healthcare resources, particularly when the disorders being checked for are relatively infrequent. This economic aspect might restrict the accessibility and affordability of screening for some groups.

            The healthcare industry has also made strides to be careful when appropriating screening tests to ensure they are necessary and follow evidence-based procedures (Savoji et al., 2019). It is also essential that everyone adopts regular screening as part of their lives. This can be the difference between life and death in some instances. It is important to note that several strides need to be taken by the healthcare sector to make screening better. The first is an investment in accurate screening technology. The second is for medical personnel to know how to deal with the anxiety brought to the patient.


Green, K., Winter, A., Dickinson, R., Graziadio, S., Wolff, R., Mallett, S., … & Park, E. (2020). What tests could potentially be used for the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of COVID-19, and what are their advantages and disadvantages? CEBM202013.

Savoji, H., Mohammadi, M. H., Rafatian, N., Toroghi, M. K., Wang, E. Y., Zhao, Y., … & Radisic, M. (2019). Cardiovascular disease models: a game-changing paradigm in drug discovery and screening. Biomaterials198, 3-26.

Sohrabi, C., Foster, A., & Tavassoli, A. (2020). Methods for generating and screening libraries of genetically encoded cyclic peptides in drug discovery. Nature Reviews Chemistry4(2), 90-101.