Read the following attached:

Artificial Intelligence and the Ongoing Need for Empathy, Compassion, and Trust in Health.

“Caring about Me”: A Pilot Framework to Understand Patient-Centered Care Experience in Integrated Care – A Qualitative Study.

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Delivering Patient-Centered Care (

An Overview of the Patient-Centered Approach (

Patient-centered care is a critical aspect of high-quality patient care, and health information plays a key role in achieving patient-centered care. Health information technology (HIT) provides patients’ health information, assists health care providers in delivering better patient-centered care, and promotes care that is based on patients’ values and preferences.

In 250 to 350 words, address the following:

Discuss the concept of patent-centered care and the roles health care professionals have that advance patient safety, engagement, and satisfaction.

Utilize one tool on the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s Tools ( webpage to develop a healthcare organization’s culture of safety that is patient-centered.

Examine the role HIT has on measuring and improving the quality of care being delivered.

Describe how HIT can enable patient-centered care.

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1Youssef A, et al. BMJ Open 2020;10:e034970. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034970

Open access

“Caring About Me”: a pilot framework
to understand patient- centered care
experience in integrated care – a
qualitative study

Alaa Youssef ,1,2 David Wiljer,2,3 Maria Mylopoulos,4 Robert Maunder,2,5
Sanjeev Sockalingam2,6

To cite: Youssef A, Wiljer D,
Mylopoulos M, et al. “Caring
About Me”: a pilot framework
to understand patient-
centered care experience
in integrated care – a
qualitative study. BMJ Open
2020;10:e034970. doi:10.1136/

► Prepublication history and
additional material for this
paper are available online. To
view these files, please visit
the journal online (http:// dx. doi.
org/ 10. 1136/ bmjopen- 2019-

Received 15 October 2019
Revised 21 April 2020
Accepted 18 June 2020

For numbered affiliations see
end of article.

Correspondence to
Dr Sanjeev Sockalingam;
sanjeev. sockalingam@ camh. ca

Original research

© Author(s) (or their
employer(s)) 2020. Re- use
permitted under CC BY- NC. No
commercial re- use. See rights
and permissions. Published by

Objective The aim of this study is to examine patients’
experiences in integrated care (IC) settings.
Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews.
Settings Two IC sites in Toronto, Canada: (1) a
community- based primary healthcare centre, supporting
patients with hepatitis C and comorbid mental health
and substance use issues; and (2) an integrated bariatric
surgery programme, an academic tertiary care centre.
Participants The study included patients (n=12) with
co- occurring mental and physical health conditions. Seven
participants (58%) were female and five (42%) were male.
Methods Twelve indepth semistructured interviews were
conducted with a purposeful sample of patients (n=12)
with comorbid mental and physical conditions at two
IC sites in Toronto between 2017 and 2018. Data were
collected and analysed using grounded theory approach.
Results Four themes emerged in our analysis reflecting
patients’ perspectives on patient- centred care experience
in IC: (1) caring about me; (2) collaborating with me; (3)
helping me understand and self- manage my care; and
(4) personalising care to address my needs. Patients’
experiences of care were primarily shaped by quality of
relational interactions with IC team members. Positive
interactions with IC team members led to enhanced
patient access to care and fostered personalising care
plans to address unique needs.
Conclusion This study adds to the literature on creating
patient- centredness in IC settings by highlighting the
importance of recognising patients’ unique needs and the
context of care for the specific patient population.

Despite the significant attention and quality
improvement efforts that foll

Bull World Health Organ 2020;98:245–250 | doi:

Policy & practice


Empathy, compassion and trust are fundamental values of
a patient-centred, relational model of health care. In recent
years, the pursuit of greater efficiency in health care, including
economic efficiency, has often resulted in these values being
side-lined, making it difficult or even impossible for health-care
professionals to incorporate them in practice. Artificial intel-
ligence is increasingly being used in health care and promises
greater efficiency, and effectiveness and a level of personalization
not possible before. Artificial intelligence could help improve di-
agnosis and treatment accuracy, streamline workflow processes,
and speed up the operation of clinics and hospital departments.
The hope is that by improving efficiency, time will be freed for
health-care professionals to focus more fully on the human side
of care, which involves fostering trust relationships and engag-
ing with patients, with empathy and compassion. However, the
transformative force of artificial intelligence has the potential
to disrupt the relationship between health-care professionals
and patients as it is currently understood, and challenge both
the role and nature of empathy, compassion and trust in this
context. In a time of increasing use of artificial intelligence in
health care, it is important to re-evaluate whether and how
these values could be incorporated and exercised, but most
importantly, society needs to re-examine what kind of health
care it ought to promote.

Empathy, compassion and trust
Over the past decades, the rise of patient-centred care has
shifted the culture of clinical medicine away from paternalism,
in which the therapeutic relationship, the relationship between
the health-care professional and the patient, is led by medical
expertise, towards a more active engagement of patients in
shared medical decision-making. This model of engagement
requires the health-care professional to understand the pa-
tient’s perspective and guide the patient in making the right
decision; a decision which reflects the patient’s needs, desires

and ideals, and also promotes health-related values.1 The
central point of the patient-centred model of doctor–patient
relationship is that medical competency should not be reduced
to technical expertise, but must include relational moral com-
petency, particularly empathy, compassion and trust.2

Empathy, compassion and trust are broadly recognized as
fundamental values of good health-care practice.3–5 Empathy
allows health-care professionals to understand and share the
patient’s feelings and perspective.6 Compassion is the desire
to help, instigated by the empathetic engagement with the
patient.7,8 Patients seek out and prefer to engage with health
professionals wh