1.        Read chapter 27 in your text: “Pain and comfort,” provide a summary of what  has been written regarding pain in the older adult population.

2.       Identify factors that affect the pain experience in older adults. 

3.       Identify barriers that interfere with pain assessment treatment.

4.       Address the key components of a nursing assessment and data to include in a pain assessment.

5.       Discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management therapies.

6.       Discuss how the gerontological nurse can develop a care plain to care for an older adult with pain. 

How can the geriatric nurse help to advocate and improve the care of older adults as it relates to pain management including nursing interventions or 

teaching and education using evidence-based research.

F.       Minimum of 5-6 references are required for this assignment. Example of an article on this topic: https://ojin.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume92004/No3Sept04/ArticlePreviousTopic/PainAssessmentandManagementinAging.html

Chapter 27

Pain and Comfort

Copyright © 2020 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Pain and Comfort

Copyright © 2020 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described as such”

Nociceptive pain

Neuropathic pain (Box 27-1)

All pain is multidimensional with sensory, psychosocial, emotional, personal, and spiritual components

Pain is categorized as either acute, or chronic and persistent


Nociceptive comes from actual injury to organs—arthritis, ulcers, heart attack, etc and is often described differently from

Neuropathic pain that arises from damage/changes to peripheral nerves and is often described as burning, itching


Pain and Comfort

As one ages, acute pain occurs most often superimposed on the persistent pain of preexisting chronic pain

The most common type of pain in late life is persistent

Persons with persistent pain are more likely to be depressed and to have sleep disorders, but not all who are depressed have physical pain

Inadequately treated persistent physical pain will almost always lead to impaired functional status and in some cases cognitive impairments (Box 27-3)

Copyright © 2020 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


And this can lead to decreased quality of life and downhill trajectory!


Pain in the Older Adult

More men than women report pain

Barriers to pain management in the older adult (Box 27-4)

Potential impact of persistent pain (Box 27-5)

With aging there is a decrease in density of both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers very slightly delaying sensation of pain from the periphery and there is slower resolution once triggered


Copyright © 2020 by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

We discussed these in Pharm—barriers can come from everyone involved in the interaction and we as nurses need to be aware of them and

Address them so patients have appropriate pain management!

Consider what it means to have chronic pain

Can’t sleep—exhausted during the day, further limiting my independence

Don’t enjoy activities because of the painlose healthy activities and interaction with others

Consider how the person will evaluate chronic pain management—it is best to look for goals that are important to the patient, instead of just a number

”I consider my pain managed when I can play with my grandchildren”

”It is important to me to be able to play a round of golf with my old squadron m

Running Head Title of the Paper

Title of the Paper in Full

Student Name

Program Name or Degree Name (e.g., Bachelor of Science in Psychology), Stratford University

COURSE XXX: Title of Course

Instructor: Dr. Keshia Thompson

Month XX, 202X

Title of the Paper in Full

APA format and college-level writing can be difficult for many students returning to school after several years away from academia. The references page shows some sample references for sources such as webpages, books, journal articles, and course videos. Below follows some advice for writing your paper and adhering to APA standards.

Each Section should have a heading. Your
introductory paragraph
and every paragraph that follows should have a minimum of 5-6 sentences, and no more than seven sentences. The last sentence of your opening paragraph should be the

thesis statement

, which summarizes the purpose of the assignment and how you intend to address it. The sentences preceding your thesis statement should simply provide background that contextualizes your thesis for readers. This can include statistics on the issue and how the issue impacts patients, nursing, and healthcare.

Each paragraph should begin with a
topic sentence
, which summarizes the paragraph’s main argument or idea. Also, the last sentence (or lead-out) of each paragraph should be a transition statement that connects what you discussed in that paragraph and what is to come in the next one. In the middle of each paragraph, you should cover something with your own thoughts, and in a separate sentence, provide a sentence paraphrased from a source with an in-text citation at the end. The source may back up your opinion, or give an alternative viewpoint, or even simply provide some background. See the Writing Center’s
webpage on paragraphs
for further advice.

Try to use
instead of
direct quotations
when possible, only quoting when the meaning of the idea or excerpt would be lost if you paraphrase it. All information from sources, whether paraphrased or quoted, need to be cited.

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