ARTICLE

Age and sex-speci!c risks of myocarditis and
pericarditis following Covid-19 messenger RNA
vaccines
Stéphane Le Vu 1!, Marion Bertrand1, Marie-Joelle Jabagi 1, Jérémie Botton 1,2, Jérôme Drouin1,
Bérangère Baricault1, Alain Weill 1, Rosemary Dray-Spira 1 & Mahmoud Zureik1,3

Cases of myocarditis and pericarditis have been reported following the receipt of Covid-19

mRNA vaccines. As vaccination campaigns are still to be extended, we aimed to provide a

comprehensive assessment of the association, by vaccine and across sex and age groups.

Using nationwide hospital discharge and vaccine data, we analysed all 1612 cases of myo-

carditis and 1613 cases of pericarditis that occurred in France in the period from May 12, 2021

to October 31, 2021. We perform matched case-control studies and !nd increased risks of

myocarditis and pericarditis during the !rst week following vaccination, and particularly after

the second dose, with adjusted odds ratios of myocarditis of 8.1 (95% con!dence interval

[CI], 6.7 to 9.9) for the BNT162b2 and 30 (95% CI, 21 to 43) for the mRNA-1273 vaccine.

The largest associations are observed for myocarditis following mRNA-1273 vaccination in

persons aged 18 to 24 years. Estimates of excess cases attributable to vaccination also reveal

a substantial burden of both myocarditis and pericarditis across other age groups and in both

males and females.

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31401-5 OPEN

1 EPIPHARE Scienti!c Interest Group in Epidemiology of Health Products, (French National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products – ANSM,
French National Health Insurance – CNAM), Saint-Denis, France. 2 Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France.
3 University Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, University Paris-Sud, Inserm, Anti-infective evasion and pharmacoepidemiology, CESP Montigny le Bretonneux, France.
!email: [email protected]

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS | ��������(2022)�13:3633� | https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31401-5 | www.nature.com/naturecommunications 1

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On July 19, 2021 the European Medicines Agency advised
that myocarditis and pericarditis be added to the list of
adverse effects of both messenger RNA (mRNA) based

vaccines (BNT162b2 [P!zer–BioNTech] and mRNA-1273
[Moderna]) against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19)1. This
statement followed pharmacovigilance reports of an increased
risk of myocarditis among recipients of mRNA vaccines that
showed certain common patterns2,3. Several reports indicate that
adverse events typically occur within a week after injection,
mostly after the secon

!”#!$%&'(!
!”#$%&’

Citation: Aldén, M.; Olofsson Falla,

F.; Yang, D.; Barghouth, M.; Luan, C.;

Rasmussen, M.; De Marinis, Y.

Intracellular Reverse Transcription of

Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA

Vaccine BNT162b2 In Vitro in Human

Liver Cell Line. Curr. Issues Mol. Biol.

2022, 44, 1115–1126.

https://doi.org/10.3390/

cimb44030073

Academic Editor: Stephen Malnick

Received: 18 January 2022

Accepted: 23 February 2022

Published: 25 February 2022

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Attribution (CC BY) license (https://

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4.0/).

Article

Intracellular Reverse Transcription of Pfizer BioNTech
COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 In Vitro in Human Liver
Cell Line
Markus Aldén 1 , Francisko Olofsson Falla 1, Daowei Yang 1, Mohammad Barghouth 1, Cheng Luan 1,
Magnus Rasmussen 2 and Yang De Marinis 1,*

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 20502 Malmö, Sweden; [email protected] (M.A.);
[email protected] (F.O.F.); [email protected] (D.Y.);
m[email protected] (M.B.); [email protected] (C.L.)

2 Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 22362 Lund, Sweden;
[email protected]

* Correspondence: [email protected]

Abstract: Preclinical studies of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2, developed by Pfizer and
BioNTech, showed reversible hepatic effects in animals that received the BNT162b2 injection.
Furthermore, a recent study showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be reverse-transcribed and in-
tegrated into the genome of human cells. In this study, we investigated

Directions:

While established vaccines are generally safe for the vast majority of the population, it is a fact that for a minority of people, certain vaccines are contraindicated. In particular, it is well known that people with immunodeficiency are advised against receiving live attenuated vaccines.

Less-often discussed is the possibility of (for some people) of autoimmune reaction. This is not only an issue with regard to vaccines, but synthetic chemicals as well (as well as potential allergy development from cross reactivity / bystander effect some individuals’ immune systems may be predisposed to engage).

For Part 1 of your initial post, examine at least one of the three paper attachments and summarize at least one point / comment regarding your chosen document(s) in your initial post. You don’t need to read the entire document(s), but please do at least read the Abstracts, and be sure to include a comment on one point or simply a summary of the abstract in your own words.

The ”
bystander effect” or as some texts call it, ”
cross-reactivity” (
microbiology definition) is: When immune cells detect a legitimate threat in the body, sometimes “innocent bystander” molecules or body cells “get in the way of its attack” and become unfortunate targets themselves. This could include otherwise perfectly harmless food molecules, or even parts of the body such as neurons’ myelin sheaths, or pancreas cells.

Such challenges are admittedly rare, yet not nonexistent.

This first paper on autoimmunity discusses how sometimes such mechanisms can occur in response to antigens (including antigens in vaccines), and was published in 2015:

Autoimmunity paper.pdf

The following paper is more relevant to specific results of autoimmunity in response to antigens as varied as viruses or particles in certain vaccines (i.e. myocarditis and pericarditis) – this is an extremely recent paper (published June 2022):

Risks of myocarditis and pericarditis following Covid-19 mRNA vaccines.pdf

The third paragraph of the discussion section of this below paper (published recently, February 2022) discusses autoimmune mechanisms regarding the Covid spike protein getting potentially expressed in the liver in particular: 

[Side note: As of the start of 2023, many, many more scientific papers documenting autoimmune adverse reactions of many more body systems have been published. I’ve cataloged 7+ such papers on vasculitis alone, as well as a very thorough report of other types of ADRs for example, if you want to see more data than I can reasonably fit into this discussion post for options.

Evidence (and further questions) regarding how Covid vaccine mRNA interacts with our genome.pdf

There are however many viral diseases f