After studying the course materials located on Module 4: Lecture Materials & Resources page, answer the following:

  1. Description and bioethical analysis of:
    • Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis PGD
    • Surrogate motherhood
    • “Snowflake babies”
    • Artificial insemination
  2. What is Natural Family Planning (NFP)?
  3. Describe the 3 Primary ovulation symptoms.
  4. Describe the 7 Secondary ovulation symptoms.
  5. Describe various protocols and methods available today.
  6. Describe some ways in which NFP is healthier than contraception.
  7. Bioethical evaluation of NFP as a means and as an end.
  8. Read and summarize ERD paragraphs #: 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 52.

Submission Instructions:

  • The work is to be clear and concise and students will lose points for improper grammar, punctuation, and misspelling.
  • If references are used, please cite properly according to the current APA style.

Commentary of The National Catholic Bioethics Cente

Volume 32, Number 10
October 2007

Views expressed are those of individual authors and may advance positions that have not yet been
doctrinally settled. Ethics & Medics makes every effort to publish articles consonant with the magisterial
teachings of the Catholic Church.

A Commentary of The National Catholic Bioethics Center on Health Care and the Life Sciences

The ChurCh and AssisTed ProCreaTion

Today, many different techniques of “assisted” human procreation are lumped together: fertility drugs,
sperm enrichment, sperm capacitation, artificial insemination, gamete intra-Fallopian transfer, in vitro
fertilization (IVF), pre-implantation diagnosis, and even reproductive cloning. In a strict sense, though,
some of these techniques assist procreation, while others substitute for it. The distinction between
assisting and substituting points to what is ethical and what is not.

Assisted procreation is both expensive and burdensome. At the physical level, it typically involves
hyperstimulating the woman’s ovaries hormonally, and extracting anywhere from one to three dozen of
her matured eggs; for the man, it involves procuring and washing sperm, in addition to a series of
preliminary tests on the couple’s overall physical health. Also, it is taxing at the psychological level
because, even after the couple has undergone all the testing and procedures―for months or perhaps
years on end―and after they have paid about thirty thousand dollars for each attempt, there are no
guarantees that it will work. If it does, it typically involves freezing a number of “spare” embryos for
possible future use, thus creating a new set of delicate issues for the couple. There are also serious
social concerns. For example, over the past thirty years or so in this industry, about half-a-million frozen
human embryos have accumulated in fertility clinics in the United States alone.1 Also, assisted human
procreation is perceived as being “pro-life,” but in reality it involves a number of very serious attacks on
human life and dignity precisely at life’s most vulnerable stage—the first week of embryonic
development.

What, then, motivates the couple to undergo these travails? The desire to have a child. Now, “to have a
child” may be taken in two ways. At face value, it is natural for loving couples to want to have children.
At a deeper level, however, no child can really be “had,” since a child is not a possession, not an object,
and not a thing. Rather, children are a gift from God. All life, and especially human life, is a

gift from God. And, by definition, we do not have a right to gifts. Therefore, no one really has a right to
have a child. Couples do have a right, however, to desire children. In fact, in order for their marriage to
be valid, the couple ha

• FINISH IVF

• NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING

• Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

• Surrogate motherhood

• “snowflake babies”

• Artificial Insemination (AI)

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

ZYGOTE

M
O

RU
LA

COMPACTION

BLASTOMERES

MALE &
FEMALE
PRONUCLEI

Surrogate motherhood
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Thai_surrogacy_controversy

INTRINSIC BIOETHICAL EVIL/WRONG:

NATURAL RIGHT TO BE GESTATED BY BIOLOGICAL MOTHER

“snowflake babies” = ivf embryo transfer
http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20081208_dignitas-personae_en.html

Artificial Insemination (AI)

NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING (NFP)

1.OVULATION SYMPTOMS

2.BIOETHICAL EVALUATION

NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING (NFP)

1.OVULATION SYMPTOMS

a) 3 PRIMARY

b) 7 SECONDARY

PRIMARY OVULATION SYMPTOMS:

1) BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE (BBT)

2) CERVIX ACTIVITY

3) CERVICAL MUCUS

SECONDARY OVULATION SYMPTOMS:

1) MITTELSCHMERZ

2) SPOTTING

3) SWOLLEN VAGINA AND/OR VULVA

4) INCREASED LIBIDO

5) BREAST TENDERNESS

6) GENERAL BLOATING

7) FERNING

SOME MAJOR PROTOCOLS AND METHODS:

• CREIGHTON MODEL (NaPro Technology)

• COUPLE TO COUPLE (CCL)

• SYMPTO-THERMAL METHOD

• BILLINGS METHOD

• FAMILY OF THE AMERICAS (BASED ON BILLINGS)

ACTIVITY OF THE CERVIX AND CERIVCAL OS DURING MENSTRUAL CYCLE

INFERTILEFERTILE

1 DAY BEFORE OVULATION:
OS OPEN, CERVIX HIGH,

SOFT AND CENTRAL,
EGGWHITE FLUID

INFERTILE PHASE: OS CLOSED,
CERVIX FIRM,

ANGLED SLIGHTLY,
TACKY FLUID

Examples of cervical mucus

during various days of the

menstrual cycle.

Transparent and elastic

is fertile.

Opaque and tacky

is infertile.

WHAT ABOUT THE HUSBAND?

• DISCIPLINE, RESPECT, COMMUNICATION, SACRIFICIAL LOVE

• OPENNESS TO THE PRESENCE OF GOD IN THEIR DAILY LIFE

2. BIOETHICAL EVALUATION OF NFP:

a) AS A MEANS

b) AS AN END / GOAL / OBJECTIVE

a) AS A MEANS:

• NO SEPARATION ÷ UNITIVE / PROCREATIVE
DIMENSIONS

• RESPECTFUL OF HUMAN NATURE

• MARRITAL INTIMACY = UNION OF
BODY AND SOUL

b) AS AN END: