Please see attached

The various models for ethical decision making typically have five to fourteen ordered steps that begin with fully comprehending the ethical dilemma and conclude with the evaluation of the implemented decision. Perhaps the easiest model to use at the bedside remains the MORAL model. Many nurses prefer this model, as the letters of the acronym remind nurses of the subsequent steps of the model, and thus the model can easily be used in all patient care settings.

The model includes the following steps:

M Massage the dilemma. Identify and define issues in the dilemma. Consider the opinions of the major players—patients, family members, nurses, physicians, clergy, and other interdisciplinary health care members—as well as their value systems.

O Outline the options. Examine all options fully, including the less realistic and conflicting ones. Make two lists, identifying the pros and cons of all the options identified. This stage is designed to fully comprehend the options and alternatives available, not to make a final decision. This is also one of the most time-consuming steps of the process and a stage that can be revisited as new information becomes available.

R Resolve the dilemma. Review the issues and options, applying basic ethical principles to each option. Decide the best option based on the views of all those concerned in the dilemma.

A Act by applying the chosen option. This step is usually the most difficult because it requires actual implementation, whereas the previous steps allow for only dialogue and discussion.

L Look back and evaluate the entire process, including the implementation. No process is complete without a thorough evaluation. Ensure that all those involved are able to follow through on the final option. If not, a second decision may be required and the process must start again at the initial step.

Example of the Moral Model
(do not use for this paper, this is only an example)

Using the MORAL Model

Jody Smith, a retired nurse with three adult children and numerous adult grandchildren, lives alone in a small rural area. Her income is limited. Two months ago, she fell and broke her left with hip. After surgery for an artificial hip replacement, she was transferred to a rehabilitation center, where she had a left-sided cerebrovascular accident (CVA). She was then readmitted to the acute care facility, where she has received aggressive therapy for the CVA.

Completely paralyzed on her left side, Mrs. Smith has decided that she no longer desires aggressive therapy and frequently asks the staff why she cannot die in peace. “The rehabilitation is so painful and I’ll never walk again. What’s the use?”

Both the doctors and he



Ethical Dilemma

Your Name

St. Johns River State College

NUR 3826 Legal and Ethical Issues in Nursing



Ethical Dilemma

Begin your paper with a short introduction. Write a three to four page scholarly paper utilizing the “MORAL” model (p. 44 of text) for an ethical dilemma from your practice in APA (7th ed.) format. The paper should have a minimum of two peer reviewed English titled journal articles as well as the text for references.

All paragraphs should be at least three sentences. The paper, will be graded using the scholarly writing rubric. This rubric is available for the student to view. The paper should be submitted in the weekly Module. The paper should be organized in the following manner:

The Problem

Describe the ethical dilemma.

M – Massage the Dilemma

Identify and define the issues. Describe how the patient, family and staff feel about the issue.

O – Outline the Options

Write a short paragraph to introduce the options then discuss the options. Complete this list as a table in your paper:




Examine all options fully discussing the pros and cons of each option in this section as paragraphs. Support your choices with the literature. This should be the in depth.

R – Resolve the Dilemma

Review the issues and options and identify which basic ethical principles apply, example autonomy or veracity.

A – Act by Applying the Chosen Option

Show how you will implement the chosen option.

L – Look Back and Evaluate

Look back and evaluate the entire process, including implementation. No process is complete without a thorough evaluation.


Describe your feelings about the dilemma. You can use 1st person in this paragraph only. Describe any steps you took to help your moral distress.


Summarize the paper. List references on separate page.

References (examples)

Author, A. A. Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2017). Title of article in lower case: Except after period or colon or proper nouns. Title of Journa

Due Sept 25th at 11:00am

Ethical Dilemma Writing Assignment

Write a three to four-page scholarly paper utilizing the “MORAL” model (see attachment) for an ethical dilemma from your practice in APA 7th edition format. The paper should have a minimum of three references, including two peer-reviewed English-titled journal articles as well as the text for references. The paper will be graded using the BSN Scholarly Writing Rubric. This rubric is available for the student to view here.

Please choose an ethical dilemma that has to do with a nurse working in the emergency room.

I have attached the MORAL model and I have attached a sample of what the paper should look like, please follow the sample.