This discussion board forum will focus on Chapter 8 of the textbook, International Collaboration for Global Public Health, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) Fact Sheet, Tiffani DeMarco’s TED talk, Genetic Counselors, and Genetic Testing: Past Present and Future, and the Believed podcast, For One Nassar Survivor, Recognizing Her Own Abuse Took Decades – And 2 Key Moments

 Genetic Counselors and Genetic Testing: Past, Present, and Future; with Tiffani DeMarco, MS, CGC | Cancer.Net 

 For One Nassar Survivor, Recognizing Her Own Abuse Took Decades — And 2 Key Moments : Believed : NPR 

Please also see attached.

To learn more about GINA and genetic discrimination, visit

National Human Genome Research Institute

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act Patient Resource

What is GINA?

GINA stands for the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. GINA is a federal law that creates a safeguard from genetic
discrimination in employment and health insurance. GINA makes it illegal for employers and insurance companies to obtain your
genetic information or use your genetic information to discriminate against you.

What is genetic information?

Genetic information includes the results from your genetic tests, the results from genetic tests taken by your family members’
genetic tests and information about diseases or disorders that run in your family.

What is genetic discrimination?

Genetic discrimination occurs when people are treated differently by their employers or insurance companies based on their genetic
makeup, such as having a genetic predisposition to develop a genetic disorder.

How does GINA protect you from discrimination in health insurance?

GINA makes it illegal for health insurers to:

1. Ask and require you to take a genetic test or disclose your genetic information for underwriting purposes.

2. Use your genetic information to determine your eligibility for insurance.

3. Use your genetic information to determine your insurance premium which is how much an
individual will pay for insurance.

How does GINA protect you from discrimination in employment?

GINA makes it illegal for prospective and current employers to:

1. Ask and require you to take a genetic test or disclose your genetic information.

2. Use your genetic information in decisions to hire, assign, promote, and fire you.

Are there any exclusions for GINA?

• GINA’s employment nondiscrimination protections do not apply to companies with fewer than 15 employees.

• The military is permitted to use your genetic information to make employment decisions. If you receive TRICARE insurance
health insurance, your eligibility depends on your continued employment in the military. This means your genetic information
may indirectly affect your ability to receive TRICARE insurance.

• Some employers offer employee wellness programs. These programs are permitted to request genetic information from
the employees that participate.

• GINA’s health insurance nondiscrimination protections do not apply to life, long term care and disability insurance.

Does your state have genetic discrimination laws in addition to GINA?

• Because GINA is a federal law, it applies across the United States. However, all 50 states have passed laws that go beyond GINA
and apply only to their states. For example, California passe

All posts should be written in your own words and be referenced and cited with at least one scholarly peer-reviewed journal article to support your position. That means even if you are replying to another person’s posts, your post still needs to be original, and referenced, and cited with a scholarly peer-reviewed journal article. The reason that PRJA citations and references are a requirement is that it elevates the discussion. The citation also allows readers to understand exactly what portion of the post is paraphrased from the reference. No direct quotes are allowed – paraphrasing is expected.

The source in which you are required to reference and cite in your discussion posts needs to come from a peer-reviewed journal article. A book (textbook or otherwise) is not appropriate. Your post and reference need to be original – not something that another student has posted and or used.

You must include an APA or AMA formatted citation and reference in your post. Discussion participants may include the instructor or students. The post must pertain to the discussion board issue in which it is being posted.

Posts must be respectful of peers and show an insightful response to a topic related to ethics in health care.

Your post will be evaluated using the following criteria:
Quality of Post (content, logic, depth, breadth) – 8 points: The quality (8 of the 20 points) of the post is of primary importance. The content, logic, depth, and breadth of your post are central to my assessment of the post’s quality. It should be your original writing and the material you cite and reference to support should be of the highest quality. It is not purely a message indicating your opinion. The support must come from at least one Peer-Reviewed Journal Article (PRJA). The lack of a PRJA affects the overall quality of the post.

The support of a peer-reviewed journal article – 4 points: How the PRJA supports the content of the post is critical (4 of to 20 points). The PRJA should provide meaningful evidence to the cited portion of your message.

Grammar, construction, academic tone – 4 points: The tone of the Required Discussion Board forums is formal. It is wise for you to evaluate the writing of your post using an editor, like The basic editor (not the premium version) is an essential tool for you to use. is free and gives you nearly immediate feedback with suggestions for improvement.

Reference properly constructed – 3 points and Citation properly constructed – 1 point: The reference (3 points out of 20 points) and the citation (1 point out of 20 points) should be properly constructed. A folder on the course website contains resources that will help you with APA and AMA style. These two styles are the only ones accepted in this class. Pick one and use it throughout an assignment.

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